Jump Back; The Best of the Rolling Stones & Time Pieces; Best of Eric Clapton

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Verkäufer: bearinparadise (2,399) 98.6%, Artikelstandort: Waterford, Michigan, Versand nach: Worldwide, Artikelnummer: 310868306276 2 Used Classic Rock & Pop CDs: Jump Back: The Best of the Rolling Stones 1971-1993 [Remaster] by The Rolling Stones (CD, 1993, Virgin) & Time Pieces: Best of Eric Clapton by Eric Clapton (CD, 1982, Polydor). Condition of both CDs & Inserts: Like New & 100% Computer Tested playable. Condition of CD Cases: New (see actual front and back photos). Used Classic Rock & Pop CD 1. Jump Back: The Best of the Rolling Stones 1971-1993 [Remaster] by The Rolling Stones (CD, 1993, Virgin): JUMP BACK; THE BEST OF THE ROLLING STONES 1971-1973;Album Features UPC: 724386468222Artist: The Rolling StonesFormat: CDRelease Year: 1993Record Label: VirginGenre: Hard Rock, Rock & Pop Track Number, Song Title:1. Start Me Up2. Brown Sugar3. Harlem Shuffle4. It's Only Rock 'N Roll (But I Like It)5. Mixed Emotions6. Angie7. Tumbling Dice8. Fool to Cry9. Rock and a Hard Place10. Miss You11. Hot Stuff12. Emotional Rescue13. Respectable14. Beast of Burden15. Waiting on a Friend16. Wild Horses17. Bitch18. Undercover of the Night DetailsPlaying Time: 74 min.Contributing Artists: Billy Preston, Bobby Womack, Sly Dunbar, Sugar BlueProducer: Jimmy Miller, Chris Kimsey, The Glimmer Twins, Steve LillywhiteDistributor: EMI Music DistributionRecording Type: StudioRecording Mode: StereoSPAR Code: n/a Album Notes:The Rolling Stones: Mick Taylor (guitar, slide guitar, bass instrument); Bill Wyman (bass instrument); Keith Richards (background vocals); Mick Jagger, Ron Wood, Charlie Watts .Personnel: Keith Richards, Ron Wood, Roy Wood Jr. (vocals, guitar, acoustic guitar); Mick Jagger (vocals, guitar, percussion); Bobby Womack (vocals); M. Taylor, Mick Taylor (guitar, slide guitar); Harvey Mandel, Wayne Perkins (guitar); Sugar Blue (harp); Bobby Keys (saxophone, alto saxophone); Bobby Keyes, Mel Collins (saxophone); Jim Price (trumpet); The Kick Horns (brass); Ian Stewart (piano, electric piano); Chuck Leavell (piano, organ, keyboards); Billy Preston (piano, keyboards); Nicky Hopkins (piano, string synthesizer); Jimmy Dickinson (piano); Ian McLagan (electric piano); Matt Clifford (keyboards); C. Watts, Charlie Watts (drums); Louis Jardine, Jimmy Miller , Sly Dunbar (percussion); Clydie King, Vanetta Field, Lisa Fisher, Sarah Dash, Bernard Fowler (background vocals).Additional personnel: Sugar Blue (harmonica); Sly Dunbar, Billy Preston, Bobby Womack.Recording information: Air Studios, Montserrat (1971-1989); Compass Point Studios, Nassau, Bahamas (1971-1989); Dynamic Sound Studios, Ki (1971-1989); Muscle Shoals Sound Studio, AL (1971-1989); Musicland Studios, Munich, Germany (1971-1989); Olympic Studios, London, England (1971-1989); Pathe Marconi Studios, Paris, France (1971-1989); Rolling Stones Mobile (1971-1989); Ronnie Wood's House, Richmond (1971-1989); Ronnie's Wood House, Richmond (1971-1989).Photographers: Roger Bamber; Rex Features; Ebet Roberts; Mike Daines; David Redfern.JUMP BACK pulls together the Rolling Stones' biggest hits from 1971's STICKY FINGERS right through to 1989's STEEL WHEELS. Although the non-chronological sequencing can be disorienting (the set kicks off with 1981's "Start Me Up," then immediately rewinds 10 years to the 71 classic "Brown Sugar"), the sheer quality and comprehensiveness of the disc proves the band was still a powerful force after the '60s ended.The strongest material here is from the early '70s, with standouts like the gorgeous "Wild Horses," the anthemic "It's Only Rock 'N Roll," and "Bitch," one of the Stones' best-ever full-tilt rockers. As always, Mick, Keith, and company ride some funky grooves, too, especially on the disco-flavored "Hot Stuff" and "Miss You" (with its irresistible falsetto refrain). Of course, there are also good tunes from the '80s, including the wistful "Waiting on a Friend," a strong cover of Bob & Earl's 1964 hit "Harlem Shuffle," and 1989's "Mixed Emotions" (which recalls the group's earlier sound). Only the Stones could release a BEST OF collection comprised of material from the decades following their acclaimed peak years and still make it sound like a rock & roll rulebook. eBay Product ID: EPID30891510 Used Classic Rock & Pop CD 2. Time Pieces: Best of Eric Clapton by Eric Clapton (CD, 1982, Polydor): Album FeaturesUPC: 042280001421Artist: Eric ClaptonFormat: CDRelease Year: 1983Record Label: PolydorGenre: Hard Rock, Rock & Pop Track Number, Song Title:1. I Shot the Sheriff2. After Midnight3. Knockin' on Heaven's Door4. Wonderful Tonight5. Layla6. Cocaine7. Lay Down Sally8. Willie and the Hand Jive9. Promises10. Swing Low Sweet Chariot11. Let It Grow DetailsPlaying Time: 45 min.Contributing Artists: Leon Russell, Yvonne Elliman, Bobby Keys, Duane AllmanDistributor: Universal DistributionRecording Type: StudioRecording Mode: StereoSPAR Code: AAD Album Notes:TIME PIECES VOLUME 1 contains material recorded between 1970 and 1978.Personnel: Eric Clapton (vocals, guitar); Delaney Bramlett, George Terry (guitar); Jim Price (trumpet); Bobby Whitlock (piano, organ, background vocals); Albhy Galuten (piano); Dick Sims (organ, keyboards); Carl Radle (bass); Jim Gordon, Jamie Oldaker (drums); Marcy Levy (background vocals).Producers: Delaney Bramlett, The Dominoes, Tom Dowd, Glyn Johns.Personnel: Eric Clapton (vocals, guitar); Bobby Whitlock (vocals, piano, organ); Marcy Levy, Yvonne Elliman (vocals); Duane Allman, George Terry (guitar); Bobby Keys (saxophone); Jim Price (trumpet); Leon Russell, Albhy Galuten (piano); Dick Sims (organ, keyboards); Jamie Oldaker, Jim Gordon (drums).Photographer: Gered Mankowitz.Unknown Contributor Role: Tom Dowd.Arranger: Eric Clapton.Featuring tunes culled from a handful of albums released in the '70s, TIME PIECES is a great representation of Eric Clapton's transition from high-flying guitar hero to a more subdued and introspective singer/songwriter/interpreter. In embracing a style influenced by the Band and country singer Don Williams, Clapton's work became more diverse. When Slowhand wasn't turning J.J. Cale into a household name ("Cocaine," "After Midnight") he was doing the same thing for Bob Marley and reggae music.After taking Marley's "I Shot The Sheriff" to the top of the charts in 1974, Clapton's immersion in this then-exotic genre further manifested itself on his versions of Dylan's "Knockin' On Heaven's Door" and the traditional gospel hymn "Swing Low Sweet Chariot." E.C.'s output during this period also documented the heartbreak ("Layla") and eventual triumph ("Wonderful Tonight") encountered in his pursuit of Patti Boyd (a.k.a .Mrs. George Harrison). eBay Product ID: EPID3082901 BIP1402062CDSJBTRSTPEC424824 Home > eBay Stores > Bear In Paradise > CDSave this seller|Sign up for Store newsletterBear In ParadiseMaintained by:bearinparadise ( 2087) Welcome to my eBay Store. Please add me to your list of favorite sellers and visit often. Thank you for your business.Store searchin titles & descriptionStore categoriesStore homeCD (281)See all matching items See all items in the storeDisplayHide gallery viewView new listedStore Newsletter!Add my Store to your Favorites and receive my email newsletters about new items and special promotions!General InterestView: All Items | Buy It Now281 results found for RockPreferences: Title & item description [ Edit preferences | Clear preferences ]View as:GallerySort by:Time: ending soonestShipping to 48329, USAGreatest Hits by Journey (CD, 1996) & The Dance by Fleetwood Mac (CD, 1997)$16.99Time left:38mKilling the Dragon by Dio (CD & Ozzmosis by Ozzy Osbourne (CD);2 Metal Music CDs$16.99Time left:1h 26mR.T. 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For other uses, see Rolling Stones (disambiguation). The Rolling Stones members montage2.jpg - Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Ronnie Wood, Charlie WattsBackground information:Also known as: The StonesOrigin: London, EnglandGenres: Rock, blues rock, rock and roll, rhythm and blues, hard rock, bluesYears active: 1962–presentLabels: Decca, London, Rolling Stones, Virgin, ABKCO, Interscope, Polydor Members:Mick JaggerKeith RichardsCharlie WattsRonnie WoodPast members Brian JonesIan StewartBill WymanMick TaylorDick TaylorTony Chapman The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London in 1962. The first line-up consisted of Brian Jones (guitar, harmonica), Ian Stewart (piano), Mick Jagger (lead vocals, harmonica), Keith Richards (guitar), Bill Wyman (bass) and Charlie Watts (drums). Jones left the band less than a month prior to his death in 1969, having already been replaced by Mick Taylor, who left In 1975. Since then Ronnie Wood has been on guitar in tandem with Richards. Following Wyman's departure in 1993, Darryl Jones has been the main bassist. Stewart was removed from the official lineup in 1963 but continued as occasional pianist until his death in 1985. Other notable keyboardist for the band have included Nicky Hopkins - active from 1967-1982, and Chuck Leavell, active 1982-present. The band was first led by Jones, but after teaming as the band's songwriters, Jagger and Richards assumed defacto leadership.The Rolling Stones were in the vanguard of the British Invasion of bands that became popular in the US in 1964–65. At first noted for their longish hair as much as their music, the band are identified with the youthful and rebellious counterculture of the 1960s. The band was instrumental in making blues a major part of rock and roll, and of changing the international focus of blues culture to the less sophisticated blues typified by Chess Records artists such as Muddy Waters, writer of "Rollin' Stone", the song after which the band is named. Musicologist Robert Palmer attributed the "remarkable endurance" of the Rolling Stones to being "rooted in traditional verities, in rhythm-and-blues and soul music" while "more ephemeral pop fashions have come and gone".The Rolling Stones were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989, and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2004. Rolling Stone magazine ranked them fourth on the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" list and their estimated album sales are above 250 million. They have released twenty-nine studio albums, eighteen live albums and numerous compilations. Let It Bleed (1969) was their first of five consecutive number one studio and Live albums in the UK. Sticky Fingers (1971) was the first of eight consecutive number one studio albums in the US. In 2008 the band ranked 10th on the "Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists" chart. In 2012 they celebrated their 50th anniversary.Contents [hide] 1 History1.1 Early history1.2 1962–64: building a following1.3 1965–67: height of fame1.4 1968–72: the "Golden Age"1.5 1973–77: mid seventies1.6 1978–82: renewed popularity and acclaim1.7 1983–91: turmoil, solo efforts, and return to the spotlight1.8 1992–2004: more success1.9 2005–11: further success1.10 2012–present: 50th anniversary2 Musical development2.1 Infusion of American blues2.2 Early songwriting3 Band members4 Discography5 See also6 Notes7 References8 Further reading9 External linksHistory[edit] Early history:Keith Richards and Mick Jagger were childhood friends and classmates in Dartford, Kent until the Jaggers moved to Wilmington.[1] Jagger had formed a garage band with Dick Taylor, mainly playing Muddy Waters, Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Howlin' Wolf and Bo Diddley songs.[1] Jagger first became reacquainted with Keith Richards in 1960 at Dartford railway station.[2] The Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters records Jagger had in his hands revealed a mutual interest and prompted their musical partnership.[2][3] Richards joined Jagger and Taylor at frequent meetings at Jagger's house. The meetings switched to Taylor's house in late 1961, where the three were joined by Alan Etherington and Bob Beckwith. The five adopted the moniker the Blue Boys.[4]In March 1962, the Blue Boys read about the Ealing Jazz Club in newspaper Jazz News and visited the place on 7 April 1962. The band members met Brian Jones there, as he sat in playing slide guitar with Alexis Korner's seminal London rhythm and blues band, Blues Incorporated, the band that also had future Rolling Stones members Ian Stewart and Charlie Watts.[5] Before visiting the Ealing Jazz Club, the Blue Boys had sent a tape of their best recordings to Alexis Korner, with which Korner was left impressed.[5] After their meeting with Korner, Jagger and Richards started jamming with Blues Incorporated.[5]Brian Jones advertised for band mates in the Jazz News and Ian Stewart found a practice space and joined with Jones and to start a rhythm and blues band playing Chicago blues. Shortly thereafter, Jagger, Taylor and Richards left Blues Incorporated to join Jones and Stewart in their effort. Also at the first rehearsal were guitarist Geoff Bradford and vocalist Brian Knight, both of whom declined to join the band citing objections to playing the Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley songs preferred by Jagger and Richards.[6] In June 1962 the line-up was: Jagger, Jones, Richards, Stewart, Taylor, and drummer Tony Chapman. According to Richards, Jones christened the band during a phone call to Jazz News. When asked for a band name Jones saw a Muddy Waters LP lying on the floor of which one of the tracks was "Rollin' Stone".[7][8]1962–64: building a following[edit]Jagger, Richards and Jones with Stewart and Dick Taylor on bass billed as "the Rollin' Stones" played their first gig on 12 July 1962, at the Marquee Club.[9] Their material included the Chicago blues as well as Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley songs.[10] Bassist Bill Wyman joined in December 1962 and drummer Charlie Watts the following January 1963 to form the band's long-standing rhythm section.[11][12] The Rolling Stones' then acting manager Giorgio Gomelsky secured a Sunday afternoon residency at the Crawdaddy Club, which, Gomelsky said, triggered an "international renaissance for the blues" and was a seminal facet of Swinging London's advent.[13]The Rolling Stones signed manager Andrew Loog Oldham, a publicist who was directed to the band by previous clients, the Beatles.[14] Because Oldham had not reached majority – he was nineteen and younger than any member of the band, he could not get an agent's license, or sign any contracts without his mother also signing for her son.[14] By necessity he joined with booking agent Eric Easton.[15][16][17] Gomelsky had no written agreement with the band and was not consulted.[18] Oldham made several changes to the band. He changed the spelling of the band name from "the Rollin' Stones" to "the Rolling Stones". He removed the "s" from Richards' last name saying it "looked more pop".[19][20] Oldham also removed Stewart from the lineup. Wyman said Stewart did not fit Oldham's mould of "pretty, thin, long-haired boys." Stewart stayed on as road manager playing piano on many studio tracks and on stage until his death in 1985.[21][22]Decca Records, which had passed on signing the Beatles, gave the Rolling Stones a recording contract with very favourable terms.[23] They got three times a new act's typical royalty rate, full artistic control of recordings, and ownership of the recording masters.[24][25] The deal also let the band use non-Decca recording studios. Regent Sound Studios, a mono facility equipped with egg boxes on the ceiling for sound treatment, became the preferred facility.[26][27] Oldham, who had no recording experience but made himself the band's producer, said Regent had a sound that "leaked, instrument-to-instrument, the right way" creating a "wall of noise" that worked well for the band.[25][28] Due to Regent's low rates, the band could record for extended periods rather than the usual three-hour blocks then prevalent at other studios. All tracks on the first Rolling Stones UK album were recorded at Regent.[29][30]Oldham contrasted the Rolling Stones' independence with the Beatles' obligation to record in EMI's studios, saying it made them appear as "mere mortals... sweating in the studio for the man".[31] Oldham promoted the Rolling Stones as the nasty opposites of the Beatles by having the band pose unsmiling on the cover of the first UK album. He also encouraged the press to use provocative headlines such as "Would you let your daughter marry a Rolling Stone?"[32] Though Oldham initially had dressed the band in uniform suits, the band drifted back to wearing everyday clothes for public appearances.[33] According to Wyman: "Our reputation and image as the Bad Boys came later, completely there, accidentally. Andrew never did engineer it. He simply exploited it exhaustively".[34]"we were the first pop group to break away from the whole Cliff Richard thing where the bands did little dance steps, wore identical uniforms and had snappy patter". – Bill Wyman[35]A cover of Chuck Berry's "Come On" was the Rolling Stones' first single, released on 7 June 1963. The Rolling Stones refused to play it at live gigs,[36] and Decca bought only one ad to promote the single. With Oldham's direction fan-club members bought copies at record shops polled by the charts,[37] helping "Come On" rise to No.21 on the UK singles charts.[38] Having a charting single gave the band entree to play outside London, starting with a booking at the Outlook Club in Middlesbrough on 13 July, sharing the billing with the Hollies.[39] Later in the year Oldham and Easton arranged the band's first big UK concert tour as a supporting act for American stars including Bo Diddley, Little Richard and The Everly Brothers. This Autumn 1963 tour became a "training ground" for the young band's stagecraft.[25][40][41]During this tour the Rolling Stones recorded their second single, a Lennon–McCartney-penned number entitled "I Wanna Be Your Man"; it reached No.12 in the UK charts. Their third single, Buddy Holly's "Not Fade Away", itself based on Bo Diddley's style, was released in February 1964 and reached No. 3.Oldham saw little future for an act that lost significant songwriting royalties by playing songs of "middle-aged blacks," limiting the appeal to teenage audiences. At Oldham's urging, Jagger and Richards co-wrote songs, the first batch of which he described as "soppy and imitative."[42] Because songwriting developed slowly, songs on the band's first album The Rolling Stones, (issued in the US as England's Newest Hit Makers) were primarily covers, with only one Jagger/Richards original – "Tell Me (You're Coming Back)" – and two numbers credited to Nanker Phelge, the pen name for songs written by the entire group.[43]The Rolling Stones' first US tour, in June 1964, was, in Bill Wyman's words, "a disaster." "When we arrived, we didn't have a hit record [there] or anything going for us."[44] When the band appeared on Dean Martin's TV variety show The Hollywood Palace, Martin mocked both their hair and their performance.[45] During the tour they recorded for two days at Chess Studios in Chicago, meeting many of their most important influences, including Muddy Waters.[46][47] These sessions included what would become the Rolling Stones' first number 1 hit in the UK: their cover of Bobby and Shirley Womack's "It's All Over Now".[48]The band's 8 August 1964 concert in Scheveningen, Netherlands, got out of control. Riot police ended the concert after about 15 minutes, upon which spectators started to fight the riot police."The Stones" followed James Brown & The Famous Flames in the filmed theatrical release of The TAMI Show, which showcased American acts with British Invasion artists. According to Jagger in 2003, "We weren't actually following James Brown because there was considerable time between the filming of each section. Nevertheless, he was still very annoyed about it..."[49] On 25 October the band also appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show. Because of the initial pandemonium the Rolling Stones caused, Sullivan banned the band from his show,[50] though they were booked for subsequent appearances in the years following.[51] Their second LP – the US-only 12 X 5 – was released during this tour;[52] like their first album, it contained mainly cover tunes, augmented by Jagger/Richards and Nanker Phelge tracks.The Rolling Stones' fifth UK single – a cover of Willie Dixon's "Little Red Rooster" backed by "Off the Hook" credited to Nanker Phelge – was released in November 1964 and became their second No.1 hit in the UK – an unprecedented achievement for a blues number. The band's US distributors (London Records) declined to release "Little Red Rooster" as a single there. In December 1964 London Records released the band's first single with Jagger/Richards originals on both sides: "Heart of Stone" backed with "What a Shame"; "Heart of Stone" went to number 19 in the US.[53]1965–67: height of fame[edit] The Rolling Stones 1965 The band's second UK LP – The Rolling Stones No. 2, released in January 1965, charted at number 1 as an album, and the US version, released in February as The Rolling Stones, Now!, reached number 5. The album was recorded at Chess Studios in Chicago and RCA Studios in Los Angeles.[54] In January/February 1965 the band played 34 shows for about 100,000 people in Australia and New Zealand.[55]The first Jagger/Richards composition to reach number 1 on the UK singles charts was "The Last Time" (released in February 1965); it went to number 9 in the US. It was also later identified by Richards as "the bridge into thinking about writing for the Stones. It gave us a level of confidence; a pathway of how to do it."[56]Their first international number-1 hit was "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction", recorded in May 1965 during the band's third North American tour. In recording the guitar riff with the fuzzbox that drives the song, Richards had envisioned it as a scratch track to guide a horn section. Disagreeing, Oldham released "Satisfaction" without the planned horn overdubs. Issued in the US in June 1965, it spent four weeks at the top of the charts there, establishing the Rolling Stones as a worldwide premier act.[56][57] A trade ad for the 1965 Rolling Stones' North American tour. The US version of the LP Out of Our Heads (released in July 1965) also went to number 1; it included seven original songs (three Jagger/Richards numbers and four credited to Nanker Phelge).[58] Their second international number-1 single, "Get Off of My Cloud" was released in the autumn of 1965,[51] followed by another US-only LP: December's Children.[52]Aftermath (UK number 1; US 2), released in the late spring of 1966, was the first Rolling Stones album to be composed entirely of Jagger/Richards songs. On this album Jones' contributions expanded beyond guitar and harmonica. To the Middle Eastern-influenced "Paint It, Black" he added sitar, to the ballad "Lady Jane" he added dulcimer, and to "Under My Thumb" he added marimbas. Aftermath was also notable for the almost 12-minute long "Goin' Home", the first extended jam on a top-selling rock & roll album.The Stones' success on the British and American singles charts peaked during 1966. "19th Nervous Breakdown" (Feb. 1966, UK number 2, US number 2) was followed by their first trans-Atlantic number-1 hit "Paint It, Black" (May 1966). "Mother's Little Helper" (June 1966) was only released as a single in the US, where it reached number 8; it was one of the first pop songs to address the issue of prescription drug abuse. Notably, Jagger sang the lyric in his natural London accent, rather than his usual affected southern-US accent.The September 1966 single "Have You Seen Your Mother, Baby, Standing In The Shadow?" (UK number 5, US number 9) was notable in several respects: It was the first Stones recording to feature brass horns, the (now-famous) back-cover photo on the original US picture sleeve depicted the group satirically dressed in drag, and the song was accompanied by one of the first purpose-made promotional film clips (music videos), directed by Peter Whitehead. "Paint It, Black" by the Rolling Stones (1966). Released as a single and as the opening track on the US version of Aftermath."(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction" by the Rolling Stones (1965). January 1967 saw the release of Between the Buttons (UK number 3; US 2); the album was Andrew Oldham's last venture as the Rolling Stones' producer (his role as the band's manager had been taken over by Allen Klein in 1965). The US version included the double A-side single "Let's Spend the Night Together" and "Ruby Tuesday", which went to number 1 in America and number 3 in the UK. When the band went to New York to perform the numbers on The Ed Sullivan Show, they were ordered to change the lyrics of the refrain to "let's spend some time together".[59][60]Jagger, Richards and Jones began to be hounded by authorities over their recreational drug use in early 1967, after News of the World ran a three-part feature entitled "Pop Stars and Drugs: Facts That Will Shock You". The series described alleged LSD parties hosted by The Moody Blues and attended by top stars including The Who's Pete Townshend and Cream's Ginger Baker, and alleged admissions of drug use by leading pop musicians. The first article targeted Donovan (who was raided and charged soon after); the second instalment (published on 5 February) targeted the Rolling Stones.[61]A reporter who contributed to the story spent an evening at the exclusive London club Blaise's, where a member of the Rolling Stones allegedly took several Benzedrine tablets, displayed a piece of hashish and invited his companions back to his flat for a "smoke". The article claimed that this was Mick Jagger, but it turned out to be a case of mistaken identity—the reporter had in fact been eavesdropping on Brian Jones. On the night the article was published Jagger appeared on the Eamonn Andrews chat show and announced that he was filing a writ for libel against the paper.[61] Brian Jones, 1965 A week later on Sunday 12 February, Sussex police, tipped off by the News of the World, who in turn were tipped off by Richards' chauffeur,[62] raided a party at Keith Richards' home, Redlands. No arrests were made at the time but Jagger, Richards and their friend Robert Fraser (an art dealer) were subsequently charged with drugs offences. Richards said in 2003, "When we got busted at Redlands, it suddenly made us realise that this was a whole different ball game and that was when the fun stopped. Up until then it had been as though London existed in a beautiful space where you could do anything you wanted."[63] On the treatment of the man responsible for the raid he later added: "As I heard it, he never walked the same again."[62]In March, while awaiting the consequences of the police raid, Jagger, Richards and Jones took a short trip to Morocco, accompanied by Marianne Faithfull, Jones' girlfriend Anita Pallenberg and other friends. During this trip the stormy relations between Jones and Pallenberg deteriorated to the point that Pallenberg left Morocco with Richards.[64] Richards said later: "That was the final nail in the coffin with me and Brian. He'd never forgive me for that and I don't blame him, but hell, shit happens."[65] Richards and Pallenberg would remain a couple for twelve years. Despite these complications, the Rolling Stones toured Europe in March and April 1967. The tour included the band's first performances in Poland, Greece and Italy.[66]On 10 May 1967, the same day Jagger, Richards and Fraser were arraigned in connection with the Redlands charges—Brian Jones' house was raided by police and he was arrested and charged with possession of cannabis.[59] Three out of five Rolling Stones now faced drug charges. Jagger and Richards were tried at the end of June. On 31 July Jagger was sentenced to three months' imprisonment for possession of four amphetamine tablets; Richards was found guilty of allowing cannabis to be smoked on his property and sentenced to one year in prison.[67] Both Jagger and Richards were imprisoned at that point, but were released on bail the next day pending appeal.[68] The Times ran the famous editorial entitled "Who breaks a butterfly on a wheel?" in which conservative editor William Rees-Mogg surprised his readers by his unusually critical discourse of the sentencing, pointing out that Jagger had been treated far more harshly for a minor first offence than "any purely anonymous young man".While awaiting the appeal hearings, the band recorded a new single, "We Love You", as a thank-you for the loyalty shown by their fans. It began with the sound of prison doors closing, and the accompanying music video included allusions to the trial of Oscar Wilde.[69] On 31 July, the appeals court overturned Richards' conviction, and Jagger's sentence was reduced to a conditional discharge.[70] Brian Jones' trial took place in November 1967; in December, after appealing the original prison sentence, Jones was fined £1000, put on three years' probation and ordered to seek professional help.[71]December 1967 also saw the release of Their Satanic Majesties Request (UK number 3; US 2), released shortly after The Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.[59] Satanic Majesties had been recorded in difficult circumstances while Jagger, Richards and Jones were dealing with their court cases. The band parted ways with producer Andrew Oldham during the sessions. The split was amicable, at least publicly,[72] but in 2003 Jagger said: "The reason Andrew left was because he thought that we weren't concentrating and that we were being childish. It was not a great moment really – and I would have thought it wasn't a great moment for Andrew either. There were a lot of distractions and you always need someone to focus you at that point, that was Andrew's job."[59]Satanic Majesties thus became the first album the Rolling Stones produced on their own. It was also the first of their albums released in identical versions on both sides of the Atlantic. Its psychedelic sound was complemented by the cover art, which featured a 3D photo by Michael Cooper, who had also photographed the cover of Sgt. Pepper. Bill Wyman wrote and sang a track on the album: "In Another Land", which was also released as a single, the first on which Jagger did not sing lead vocal.[73]1968–72: the "Golden Age"[edit]The band spent the first few months of 1968 working on material for their next album. Those sessions resulted in the song "Jumpin' Jack Flash", released as a single in May. The song and the subsequent album, Beggars Banquet (UK number 3; US 5), an eclectic mix of country and blues-inspired tunes, marked the band's return to their roots, and the beginning of their collaboration with producer Jimmy Miller. It featured the lead single "Street Fighting Man" (which addressed the political upheavals of May 1968) and the opening track "Sympathy for the Devil".Beggars Banquet was well received at the time of release. Richards said, "There is a change between material on Satanic Majesties and Beggars Banquet. I'd grown sick to death of the whole Maharishi guru shit and the beads and bells. Who knows where these things come from, but I guess [the music] was a reaction to what we'd done in our time off and also that severe dose of reality. A spell in prison... will certainly give you room for thought... I was fucking pissed with being busted. So it was, 'Right we'll go and strip this thing down.' There's a lot of anger in the music from that period."[74] Richards started using open tunings for rhythm parts (often in conjunction with a capo), most prominently an open-E or open-D tuning in 1968. Beginning in 1969, he often used 5-string open-G tuning (with the lower 6th string removed), as heard on the 1969 single "Honky Tonk Women", "Brown Sugar" (Sticky Fingers, 1971), "Tumbling Dice" (capo IV), "Happy" (capo IV) (Exile on Main St., 1972), and "Start Me Up" (Tattoo You, 1981).The end of 1968 saw the filming of The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus. It featured John Lennon, Yoko Ono, The Dirty Mac, The Who, Jethro Tull, Marianne Faithfull and Taj Mahal. The footage was shelved for twenty-eight years but was finally released officially in 1996.By the release of Beggars Banquet, Brian Jones was increasingly troubled and was only sporadically contributing to the band. Jagger said that Jones was "not psychologically suited to this way of life".[75] His drug use had become a hindrance, and he was unable to obtain a US visa. Richards reported that, in a June meeting with Jagger, Richards, and Watts at Jones' house, Jones admitted that he was unable to "go on the road again". Richards said all agreed to let Jones "...say 'I've left, and if I want to I can come back'".[3] On 3 July 1969, less than a month later, Jones drowned in the swimming pool under mysterious circumstances at his home, Cotchford Farm, in Hartfield, East Sussex. Keith Richards, 1972. The Rolling Stones were scheduled to play at a free concert for Blackhill Enterprises in London's Hyde Park, two days after Brian Jones' death; they decided to proceed with the show as a tribute to Jones. The concert, their first with Mick Taylor, was performed in front of an estimated 250,000 fans.[59] The performance was filmed by a Granada Television production team, and was shown on British television as Stones in the Park. Jagger read an excerpt from Shelley's elegy Adonaïs and released thousands of butterflies in memory of Jones[59] before opening their set with "I'm Yours and I'm Hers", a Johnny Winter number.Also performed, but previously unheard by the audience, were Midnight Rambler and Love In Vain from their forthcoming album Let It Bleed (released December 1969) and Give Me A Drink which eventually appeared on Exile On Main Street (released May 1972). The show also included the concert debut of Honky Tonk Women, which the band had just released the previous day. The Blackhill Enterprises stage manager Sam Cutler introduced them as "the greatest rock & roll band in the world",[76] a description he repeated throughout their 1969 US tour, and which has stuck to this day (Cutler left Blackhill Enterprises to become the Stones' road manager following the Hyde Park concert). "Gimme Shelter" by the Rolling Stones, from Let It Bleed (1969)"Brown Sugar" by the Rolling Stones, from Sticky Fingers (1971) The release of Let It Bleed (UK number 1; US 3) came in December. Their last album of the sixties, Let It Bleed featured "Gimme Shelter". The lead female vocalist – and famed solo – on "Gimme Shelter" is performed by singer Merry Clayton, (sister of Sam Clayton, of the American rock band, Little Feat).[77]Other tracks include "You Can't Always Get What You Want" (with choral accompaniment by the London Bach Choir, who initially asked for their name to be removed from the album's credits after being apparently 'horrified' by the content of some of its other material, but later withdrew this request), "Midnight Rambler" as well as a cover of Robert Johnson's "Love in Vain". Jones and Taylor are featured on two tracks each. Many of these numbers were played during the band's US tour in November 1969, their first in three years.Just after the tour the band performed at the Altamont Free Concert at the Altamont Speedway, about 60 km east of San Francisco. The biker gang Hells Angels provided security, and a fan, Meredith Hunter, was stabbed and beaten to death by the Angels after they realised that he was armed.[78] Part of the tour and the Altamont concert were documented in Albert and David Maysles' film Gimme Shelter. As a response to the growing popularity of bootleg recordings (in particular the still sought-after Live'r Than You'll Ever Be), the album Get Yer Ya-Yas Out! (UK 1; US 6) was released in 1970; it was declared by critic Lester Bangs to be the best live album ever.[79] Mick Taylor, 1972. At the turn of the decade the band appeared on the BBC's highly rated review of the sixties music scene Pop Go The Sixties, performing Gimme Shelter on the show, which was broadcast live on 31 December 1969. In 1970 the band's contracts with both Allen Klein and Decca Records ended (cf. Schoolboy Blues), and amid contractual disputes with Klein, they formed their own record company, Rolling Stones Records. Sticky Fingers (UK number 1; US 1), released in March 1971, the band's first album on their own label, featured an elaborate cover design by Andy Warhol.The album was the first to feature the logo of Rolling Stones Records, which effectively became the band’s logo. It consisted of a pair of lips with a lapping tongue. Critic Sean Egan has said of the logo, "Without using the Stones' name, it instantly conjures them, or at least Jagger, as well as a certain lasciviousness that is the Stones' own... It quickly and deservedly became the most famous logo in the history of popular music."[80]The album contains one of their best known hits, "Brown Sugar", and the country-influenced "Dead Flowers". Both were recorded at Alabama's Muscle Shoals Sound Studio during the 1969 American tour. The album continued the band's immersion into heavily blues-influenced compositions. The album is noted for its "loose, ramshackle ambience"[81] and marked Mick Taylor's first full release with the band.Following the release of Sticky Fingers, the Rolling Stones left England after receiving financial advice. They moved to the South of France, where Richards rented the Villa Nellcôte and sublet rooms to band members and entourage. Using the Rolling Stones Mobile Studio, they held recording sessions in the basement; they completed the resulting tracks, along with material dating as far back as 1969, at Sunset Studios in Los Angeles. The resulting double album, Exile on Main St. (UK number 1; US 1), was released in May 1972. Given an A+ grade by critic Robert Christgau[82] and disparaged by Lester Bangs – who reversed his opinion within months – Exile is now accepted as one of the Stones' best albums.[83] The films Cocksucker Blues (never officially released) and Ladies and Gentlemen: The Rolling Stones (released in 1974) document the subsequent highly publicised 1972 North American ("STP") Tour, with its retinue of jet-set hangers-on, including writer Terry Southern.1973–77: mid seventies[edit] The Rolling Stones' logo, designed by John Pasche, was introduced in 1971 In November 1972, the band began sessions in Kingston, Jamaica, for their follow-up to Exile, Goats Head Soup (UK 1; US 1) (1973). The album spawned the worldwide hit "Angie", but proved the first in a string of commercially successful but tepidly received studio albums.[84] The sessions for Goats Head Soup led to a number of outtakes, most notably an early version of the popular ballad "Waiting on a Friend", not released until Tattoo You eight years later. Bill Wyman, 1975. The making of the record was interrupted by another legal battle over drugs, dating back to their stay in France; a warrant for Richards' arrest had been issued, and the other band members had to return briefly to France for questioning.[85] This, along with Jagger's convictions on drug charges (in 1967 and 1970[86]), complicated the band's plans for their Pacific tour in early 1973: they were denied permission to play in Japan and almost banned from Australia. This was followed by a European tour (bypassing France) in September/October 1973 – prior to which Richards had been arrested once more on drug charges, this time in England.[87]The band went to Musicland studios in Munich to record their next album, 1974's It's Only Rock 'n' Roll (UK 2; US 1), but Jimmy Miller, who had drug abuse issues, was no longer producer. Instead, Jagger and Richards assumed production duties and were credited as "the Glimmer Twins". Both the album and the single of the same name were hits.Near the end of 1974, Taylor began to lose patience.[88] The band's situation made normal functioning complicated, with band members living in different countries and legal barriers restricting where they could tour. In addition, drug use was affecting Richards' creativity and productivity, and Taylor felt some of his own creative contributions were going unrecognised.[89] At the end of 1974, with a recording session already booked in Munich to record another album, Taylor quit the Rolling Stones.[90]Taylor said in 1980, "I was getting a bit fed up. I wanted to broaden my scope as a guitarist and do something else... I wasn't really composing songs or writing at that time. I was just beginning to write, and that influenced my decision... There are some people who can just ride along from crest to crest; they can ride along somebody else's success. And there are some people for whom that's not enough. It really wasn't enough for me."[91] Ronnie Wood (left) and Mick Jagger (right) 1975 The Rolling Stones needed to find a replacement for Taylor and the recording sessions for the next album, Black and Blue (UK 2; US 1) (1976) in Munich provided an opportunity for some hopefuls to work while trying out for the band. Guitarists as stylistically disparate as Peter Frampton (Humble Pie's lead guitarist) and Jeff Beck (ex-Yardbirds virtuoso) were auditioned as well as Shuggie Otis. Both Beck and Irish blues rock guitarist Rory Gallagher later claimed that they had played without realising they were being auditioned, and both agreed that they would never have joined. American session players Wayne Perkins and Harvey Mandel also worked on much of the album but Richards and Jagger had a preference for the band to remain purely British. When Ronnie Wood auditioned, everyone agreed that he was the right choice.[92]Wood had already recorded and played live with Richards, and had contributed to the recording and writing of the track "It's Only Rock 'n Roll". He had earlier declined Jagger's offer to join the Stones, because of his ties to The Faces, saying "that's what's really important to me".[93] Rod Stewart went so far as to say he would take bets that Ronnie would not join the Stones.[93]Wood committed to the Rolling Stones in 1975 for their upcoming Tour of the Americas. He officially joined the band the following year, as the Faces dissolved. Unlike the other band members, however, Wood was a salaried employee and remained so until Wyman's departure nearly two decades later, when Wood finally became a full member of the Rolling Stones' partnership.The 1975 Tour of the Americas kicked off in New York City with the band performing on a flatbed trailer being pulled down Broadway. The tour featured stage props including a giant phallus and a rope on which Jagger swung out over the audience. Jagger had booked live recording sessions at the El Mocambo club in Toronto to balance a long-overdue live album, 1977's Love You Live (UK 3; US 5), the first Stones live album since 1970's Get Yer Ya-Ya's Out! The Rolling Stones in Concert. Tour of the Americas '75, 23 July 1975. L to R: Wood, Richards and Jagger. Richards' addiction to heroin delayed his arrival in Toronto; the other members had already assembled, awaiting Richards, and sent him a telegram asking him where he was. On 24 February 1977, when Richards and his family flew in from London, they were temporarily detained by Canada Customs after Richards was found in possession of a burnt spoon and hash residue. Three days later, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, armed with an arrest warrant for Pallenberg, discovered "22 grams of heroin"[94] in Richards' room. Richards was charged with importing narcotics into Canada, an offence that carried a minimum seven-year sentence.[95]Later the Crown prosecutor conceded that Richards had procured the drugs after arrival.[96] Despite the arrest, the band played two shows in Toronto, only to raise more controversy when Margaret Trudeau, then-wife of Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, was seen partying with the band after one show. The band's two shows were not advertised to the public. Instead, the El Mocambo had been booked for the entire week by April Wine for a recording session. 1050 CHUM, a local radio station, ran a contest for free tickets to see April Wine. Contest winners who selected tickets for Friday or Saturday night were surprised to find the Rolling Stones playing.[97]On 4 March, Richards' partner Anita Pallenberg pled guilty to drug possession and incurred a fine in connection with the original airport incident.[97] The drug case against Richards dragged on for over a year. Ultimately, Richards received a suspended sentence and was ordered to play two free concerts for the CNIB in Oshawa;[96] both shows featured the Rolling Stones and the New Barbarians, a group that Wood had put together to promote his latest solo album, and which Richards also joined. This episode strengthened Richards' resolve to stop using heroin.[59]It also contributed to the end of his relationship with Pallenberg, which had become strained since the death of their third child (an infant son named Tara). In addition, Pallenberg was unable to curb her heroin addiction while Keith struggled to get clean.[98] While Richards was settling his legal and personal problems, Jagger continued his jet-set lifestyle. He was a regular at New York's Studio 54 disco club, often in the company of model Jerry Hall. His marriage to Bianca Jagger ended in 1977, although they had long been estranged.[99]Although the Rolling Stones remained popular through the first half of the 1970s, music critics had grown increasingly dismissive of the band's output, and record sales failed to meet expectations.[51] By the late 1970s, after punk rock became influential, many criticised the Rolling Stones as decadent, ageing millionaires[59] and their music as stagnant or irrelevant.[100]1978–82: renewed popularity and acclaim[edit]This changed in 1978, after the band released Some Girls (UK No. 2; US No. 1), which included the hit single "Miss You", the country ballad "Far Away Eyes", "Beast of Burden", and "Shattered". In part as a response to punk, many songs were fast, basic, guitar-driven rock and roll,[100] and the album's success re-established the Rolling Stones' immense popularity among young people. Following the US Tour 1978, the band guested on the first show of the fourth season of the TV series Saturday Night Live. The group did not tour Europe the following year, breaking the routine of touring Europe every three years that the band had followed since 1967.Following the success of Some Girls, the band released their next album Emotional Rescue (UK 1; US 1) in mid-1980.[101] The recording of the album was reportedly plagued by turmoil, with Jagger and Richards' relationship reaching a new low.[101] Richards, though still using heroin according to former keyboardist of The Small Faces Ian McLagan,[102] wanted to tour in summer or autumn of 1980 to promote the new album, which Jagger declined.[101] Emotional Rescue hit the top of the charts on both sides of the Atlantic and the title track reached No.3 in the US.[101] The Rolling Stones performing in December 1981 In early 1981, the group reconvened and decided to tour the US that year, leaving little time to write and record a new album, as well as rehearse for the tour. That year's resulting album, Tattoo You (UK 2; US 1), featured a number of outtakes, including lead single "Start Me Up", which reached No.2 in the US and ranked No.22 on Billboard's Hot 100 year-end chart. Two songs ("Waiting on a Friend" (US No. 13) and "Tops") featured Mick Taylor's guitar playing, while jazz saxophonist Sonny Rollins played on "Slave" and dubbed a part on "Waiting on a Friend".The Rolling Stones scored one more Top 20 hit on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1982, the No.20 hit "Hang Fire". The Stones' American Tour 1981 was their biggest, longest and most colourful production to date, with the band playing from 25 September through 19 December. It was the highest grossing tour of that year.Some shows were recorded, resulting in the 1982 live album Still Life (American Concert 1981) (UK 4; US 5), and the 1983 Hal Ashby concert film Let's Spend the Night Together, which was filmed at Sun Devil Stadium in Tempe, Arizona and the Brendan Byrne Arena in the Meadowlands, New Jersey. Also in 1981, they played a concert at Chicago's Checkerboard Lounge with Muddy Waters, in what would be one of his last public appearances before his death in 1983.In mid-1982, to commemorate their 20th anniversary, the Rolling Stones took their American stage show to Europe. The European Tour 1982 was their first European tour in six years. The tour was similar to their 1981 American tour. For the tour, the band were joined by former Allman Brothers Band pianist, Chuck Leavell, who continues to perform and record with the Rolling Stones to date.[103] By the end of the year, the band had signed a new four-album 28 million dollar recording deal with a new label, CBS Records.1983–91: turmoil, solo efforts, and return to the spotlight[edit]Before leaving Atlantic, the Rolling Stones released Undercover (UK 3; US 4) in late 1983. Despite good reviews and the Top Ten peak position of the title track, the record sold below expectations and there was no tour to support it. Subsequently the Stones' new marketer/distributor CBS Records took over distributing the Stones' Atlantic catalogue. Charlie Watts from The Rolling Stones; 11 December 1981, Rupp Arena, Lexington Kentucky By this time, the Jagger/Richards split was growing. Much to the consternation of Richards, Jagger had signed a solo deal with CBS Records, and he spent much of 1984 writing songs for this first solo effort. He has also stated that he was feeling stultified within the framework of the Rolling Stones.[104] By 1985, Jagger was spending more time on solo recordings, and much of the material on 1986's Dirty Work (UK No. 4; US No. 4) was generated by Keith Richards, with more contributions by Ronnie Wood than on previous Rolling Stones albums. The album was recorded in Paris, and Jagger was often absent from the studio, leaving Richards to keep the recording sessions moving forward.[105]In June 1985, Jagger teamed up with rock musician David Bowie in the music video "Dancing in the Street", which was recorded as part of the Live Aid charity movement.[106] This was one of Jagger's first solo performances, and the song reached No 1 in the UK, and No 7 in the US.[107][108] In December 1985, the band's co-founder, pianist, road manager and long-time friend Ian Stewart died of a heart attack. The Rolling Stones played a private tribute concert for him at London's 100 Club in February 1986, with special guest Renee Beeka a close friend of Jaggers two days before they were presented with a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.[109]Dirty Work was released in March 1986 to mixed reviews despite the presence of the US Top Five hit "Harlem Shuffle". With relations between Richards and Jagger at an all time low, Jagger refused to tour to promote the album, and instead undertook his own solo tour which included Rolling Stones songs.[110][111] Richards has referred to this period in his relations with Jagger as "World War III".[112] As a result of animosity within the band during this period, they almost broke up.[110] Jagger's solo records, She's The Boss (UK 6; US 13) (1985) and Primitive Cool (UK 26; US 41) (1987), met with moderate success, and in 1988, with the Rolling Stones inactive, Richards released his first solo album, Talk Is Cheap (UK 37; US 24). It was well received by fans and critics, going gold in the US.[113]In early 1989, the Rolling Stones, including Mick Taylor, Ronnie Wood and Ian Stewart (posthumously), were inducted into the American Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[51] Jagger and Richards set aside animosities and went to work on a new Rolling Stones album that would be called Steel Wheels (UK 2; US 3). Heralded as a return to form, it included the singles "Mixed Emotions" (US No. 5), "Rock and a Hard Place" (US No. 23) and "Almost Hear You Sigh". The album also included "Continental Drift", which the Rolling Stones recorded in Tangier, Morocco in 1989 with The Master Musicians of Jajouka led by Bachir Attar, coordinated by Tony King and Cherie Nutting. A BBC documentary film, The Rolling Stones in Morocco, was produced by Nigel Finch.The subsequent Steel Wheels/Urban Jungle Tours, encompassing North America, Japan and Europe, saw the Rolling Stones touring for the first time in seven years (since Europe 1982), and it was their biggest stage production to date. Opening acts included Living Colour and Guns N' Roses; the onstage personnel included a horn section and backup singers Lisa Fischer and Bernard Fowler, both of whom continue to tour regularly with the Rolling Stones. Recordings from the Steel Wheels/Urban Jungle tours produced the 1991 concert album Flashpoint (UK 6; US 16), which also included two studio tracks recorded in 1991: the single "Highwire" and "Sex Drive". The tour also produced the IMAX concert film Live at the Max released in 1991.These were the last Rolling Stones tours for Bill Wyman, who left the band after years of deliberation, although his retirement was not made official until January 1993.[114] He then published Stone Alone, an autobiography based on scrapbooks and diaries he had been keeping since the band's early days. A few years later he formed Bill Wyman's Rhythm Kings and began recording and touring again.1992–2004: more success[edit]After the successes of the Steel Wheels/Urban Jungle tours, the band took a break. Charlie Watts released two jazz albums; Ronnie Wood recorded his fifth solo album, the first in 11 years, called Slide On This; Bill Wyman released his fourth solo album, Stuff, released only in Japan and Argentina; Keith Richards released his second solo album in late 1992, Main Offender (UK 45; US 99), and did a small tour including big concerts in Spain and Argentina. Mick Jagger got good reviews and sales with his third solo album, Wandering Spirit (UK 12; US 11). The album sold more than two million copies worldwide, going gold in the US.[113]After Wyman's departure, the Rolling Stones' new distributor/record label, Virgin Records, remastered and repackaged the band's back catalogue from Sticky Fingers to Steel Wheels, except for the three live albums, and issued another hits compilation in 1993 entitled Jump Back (UK 16; US 30). By 1993 the Rolling Stones set upon their next studio album. Darryl Jones, former sideman of Miles Davis and Sting, was chosen by Charlie Watts as Wyman's replacement for 1994's Voodoo Lounge (UK 1; US 2). The album met strong reviews and sales, going double platinum in the US. Reviewers took note of the album's "traditionalist" sounds, which were credited to the Rolling Stones' new producer Don Was.[115] It would go on to win the 1995 Grammy Award for Best Rock Album.1994 also brought the accompanying Voodoo Lounge Tour, which lasted into 1995. Numbers from various concerts and rehearsals (mostly acoustic) made up Stripped (UK 9; US 9), which featured a cover of Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone", as well as infrequently played songs like "Shine a Light", "Sweet Virginia" and "The Spider and the Fly". On 8 September 1994, the Rolling Stones performed "Love Is Strong" and "Start Me Up" at the 1994 MTV Video Music Awards at Radio City Music Hall in New York.[116] The band received the Lifetime Achievement Award at the ceremony.[116]The Rolling Stones were the first major recording artists to broadcast a concert over the Internet; a 20-minute video was broadcast on 18 November 1994 using the Mbone at 10 frames per second. The broadcast, engineered by Thinking Pictures and financed by Sun Microsystems, was one of the first demonstrations of streaming video; while it was not a true webcast, it introduced many to the technology.[117] Keith Richards, 2006. The Rolling Stones ended the 1990s with the album Bridges to Babylon (UK 6; US 3), released in 1997 to mixed reviews. The video of the single "Anybody Seen My Baby?" featured Angelina Jolie as guest and met steady rotation on both MTV and VH1. Sales were reasonably equivalent to those of previous records (about 1.2 million copies sold in the US), and the subsequent Bridges to Babylon Tour, which crossed Europe, North America and other destinations, proved the band to be a strong live attraction. Once again, a live album was culled from the tour, No Security (UK 67; US 34), only this time all but two songs ("Live With Me" and "The Last Time") were previously unreleased on live albums. In 1999, the Rolling Stones staged the No Security Tour in the US and continued the Bridges to Babylon tour in Europe. The No Security Tour offered a stripped-down production in contrast to the pyrotechnics and mammoth stages of other recent tours.In late 2001, Mick Jagger released his fourth solo album, Goddess in the Doorway (UK 44; US 39) which met with mixed reviews.[118] A month after the September 11 attacks, Jagger and Richards took part in "The Concert for New York City", performing "Salt of the Earth" and "Miss You" with a backing band.In 2002, the band released Forty Licks (UK 2; US 2), a greatest hits double album, to mark their forty years as a band. The collection contained four new songs recorded with the latter-day core band of Jagger, Richards, Watts, Wood, Leavell and Jones. The album has sold more than 7 million copies worldwide. The same year, Q magazine named the Rolling Stones as one of the "50 Bands To See Before You Die",[119] and the 2002–2003 Licks Tour gave people that chance. The tour included shows in small theatres, arenas and stadiums. The band headlined the Molson Canadian Rocks for Toronto concert in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, to help the city – which they have used for rehearsals since the Steel Wheels tour – recover from the 2003 SARS epidemic. The concert was attended by an estimated 490,000 people.On 9 November 2003, the band played their first concert in Hong Kong as part of the Harbour Fest celebration, also in support of the SARS-affected economy. In November 2003, the band exclusively licensed the right to sell their new four-DVD boxed set, Four Flicks, recorded on the band's most recent world tour, to the US Best Buy chain of stores. In response, some Canadian and US music retail chains (including HMV Canada and Circuit City) pulled Rolling Stones CDs and related merchandise from their shelves and replaced them with signs explaining the situation.[120] In 2004, a double live album of the Licks Tour, Live Licks (UK 38; US 50), was released, going gold in the US.[113] In November 2004, the Rolling Stones were among the inaugural inductees into the UK Music Hall of Fame.[121]2005–11: further success[edit] The Rolling Stones, 2006. On 26 July 2005, Jagger's birthday, the band announced the name of their new album, A Bigger Bang (UK 2; US 3), their first album in almost eight years. A Bigger Bang was released on 6 September to strong reviews, including a glowing write-up in Rolling Stone magazine.[122] The single "Streets of Love" reached the top 15 in the UK.[123]The album included the political "Sweet Neo Con", a criticism of American Neoconservatism from Jagger.[124] The song was reportedly almost dropped from the album because of objections from Richards. When asked if he was afraid of political backlash such as the Dixie Chicks had endured, Richards responded that the album came first, and that, "I don't want to be sidetracked by some little political 'storm in a teacup'."[125]The subsequent A Bigger Bang Tour began in August 2005, and visited North America, South America and East Asia. In February 2006, the group played the half-time show of Super Bowl XL in Detroit, Michigan. By the end of 2005, the Bigger Bang tour set a record of $162 million in gross receipts, breaking the North American mark also set by the Rolling Stones 1994. On 18 February 2006 the band played a free concert with a claimed 1.5 million attendance at the Copacabana beach in Rio de Janeiro.After performances in Japan, China, Australia and New Zealand in March/April 2006, the Rolling Stones tour took a scheduled break before proceeding to Europe; during this break Keith Richards was hospitalised in New Zealand for cranial surgery after a fall from a tree on Fiji, where he had been on holiday. The incident led to a six-week delay in launching the European leg of the tour.[126][127] In June 2006 it was reported that Ronnie Wood was continuing his programme of rehabilitation for alcohol abuse,[128][129] but this did not affect the rearranged European tour schedule. Two out of the 21 shows scheduled for July–September 2006 were later cancelled due to Mick Jagger's throat problems.[130]The Rolling Stones returned to North America for concerts in September 2006, and returned to Europe on 5 June 2007. By November 2006, the Bigger Bang tour had been declared the highest-grossing tour of all time, earning $437 million. The North American leg brought in the third-highest receipts ever ($138.5 million), trailing their own 2005 tour ($162 million) and U2's Vertigo Tour from that same year ($138.9 million).[131] The Rolling Stones 2008 (from left to right: Charlie Watts, Ronnie Wood, Keith Richards, Mick Jagger) at the Berlin Film Festival's (Filmfestspiele Berlin/Berlinale) world premiere of Shine a Light. Martin Scorsese filmed on 29 October and 1 November 2006 the Rolling Stones performances at New York City's Beacon Theatre which was released as the 2008 film Shine a Light; the film also features guest appearances by Buddy Guy, Jack White and Christina Aguilera.[132] An accompanying soundtrack, also titled Shine a Light (UK 2; US 11), was released in April 2008. The album's debut at number 2 in the UK charts was the highest position for a Rolling Stones concert album since Get Yer Ya-Ya's Out! The Rolling Stones in Concert in 1970. At the Beacon Theater show, Music Executive, Ahmet Ertegun fell and ultimately succumbed to his injury.[133]On 24 March 2007, the band announced a tour of Europe called the "Bigger Bang 2007" tour. 12 June 2007 saw the release of the band's second four-disc DVD set: The Biggest Bang, a seven-hour document featuring their shows in Austin, Rio de Janeiro, Saitama, Shanghai and Buenos Aires, along with extras. On 10 June 2007, the band performed their first gig at a festival in 30 years, at the Isle of Wight Festival, to a crowd of 65,000. On 26 August 2007, they played their last concert of the A Bigger Bang Tour at The O2 Arena in London, England. At the conclusion of the tour, it was announced the Rolling Stones had made $558 million on the A Bigger Bang Tour to list them in the latest edition of Guinness World Records.[134]Mick Jagger released a compilation of his solo work called The Very Best of Mick Jagger (UK 57; US 77), including three unreleased songs, on 2 October 2007. On 12 November 2007, ABKCO released Rolled Gold: The Very Best of the Rolling Stones, a double-CD remake of the 1975 compilation Rolled Gold; the reissue went to number 26 in the UK charts.In a 2007 interview with Mick Jagger after nearly two years of touring, Jagger refused to say when the band is going to retire: "I'm sure the Rolling Stones will do more things, more records and more tours, we've got no plans to stop any of that, really. As far as I'm concerned, I'm sure we'll continue."[135] In March 2008 Keith Richards sparked rumours that a new Rolling Stones studio album may be forthcoming, saying during an interview following the premiere of Shine a Light, "I think we might make another album. Once we get over doing promotion on this film". Drummer Charlie Watts remarked that he got ill whenever he stopped working.[136]In July 2008 it was announced that the Rolling Stones were leaving EMI and signing with Vivendi's Universal Music, taking with them their catalogue stretching back to Sticky Fingers. New music released by the band while under this contract will be issued through Universal's Polydor label.[137] Mercury Records will hold the US rights to the pre-1994 material, while the post-1994 material will be handled by Interscope Records (once a subsidiary of Atlantic). Coincidentally, Universal Music is also the distributor for ABKCO, owners of the band's pre-Sticky Fingers releases.During the autumn, Mick Jagger and Keith Richards worked with producer Don Was to add new vocals and guitar parts to ten unfinished songs from the Exile on Main St. sessions. Mick Jagger and Mick Taylor also did a session together in London where Mick Taylor added lead guitar to what would be the expanded album's single, "Plundered My Soul".On 17 April 2010, the band released a limited edition 7-inch vinyl single of the previously unreleased track "Plundered My Soul" in honour of Record Store Day. The track, part of the group's 2010 re-issue of Exile on Main St., was combined with "All Down the Line" as its B-side.[138]On 23 April, it was announced that the band would be at Cannes Festival, for the premiere of the documentary Stones in Exile (directed by Stephen Kijak[139]), about the recording of the album Exile on Main St..[140]On 23 May 2010, the re-issue of Exile on Main St. stormed at No. 1 in the UK charts, almost 38 years to the week after it first occupied that position. The Rolling Stones are the first act to ever see a classic work return to No. 1 decades after it was first released.[141] In the US, the album sold 76,000 copies during the first week and re-entered the charts at No. 2. A CD containing just the 10 new tracks from the 2CD edition of Exile on Main St. was released exclusively through Target, – as Exile On Main St. (Rarities Edition) and also charted at No. 27.[142]On 11 October 2010, the Stones released Ladies and Gentlemen: The Rolling Stones to the cinemas and later on to DVD. A digitally remastered version of the film was shown in select cinemas across the United States. This live performance was recorded during 4 shows in Ft. Worth and Houston, Texas in support of their The Rolling Stones American Tour 1972 and their album Exile on Main St.. The film was released to cinemas in 1974 but until now it was never available for home release apart from the numerous bootleg copies.[143]On 4 October 2011, the Stones released The Rolling Stones: Some Girls Live In Texas '78 to the cinemas and later on to DVD. A digitally remastered version of the film was shown in select cinemas across the United States. This live performance was recorded during one show in Ft. Worth, Texas in support of their US Tour 1978 and their album Some Girls. The film was released in (DVD/Blu-ray Disc) on 15 November 2011.[144]On 21 November 2011, the Stones reissued their 1978 album Some Girls as a 2 CD deluxe edition with a second CD of twelve previously unreleased tracks (except "So Young," which was a b-side to "Out of Tears") from the sessions for Some Girls, like the 2010 reissue of Exile On Main St., with mostly newly recorded vocals from Mick Jagger. "No Spare Parts" was released as a single on 13 November, which went to No. 2 on Billboard's Hot Singles Sales. "So Young" was the second single from the Some Girls reissue, released briefly for free on iTunes the same day "No Spare Parts" was released. A video for "No Spare Parts" was produced and was later released on 19 December 2011. The album made the charts again reaching the Top 50 in the U.S.2012–present: 50th anniversary[edit] Jagger and Richards in Hyde Park during a Rolling Stones concert, 2013. The Rolling Stones celebrated their 50th anniversary in the summer of 2012 by releasing a large hardback book titled 50.[145] A new take on the band's lip-and-tongue logo, designed by Shepard Fairey, was also released and used during the celebrations.[146]The documentary titled Crossfire Hurricane, directed by Brett Morgen, was released in October 2012. Approximately fifty hours of interviews were conducted by Morgen for use for the documentary, including interviews with Bill Wyman and Mick Taylor, which Morgen says are "the most extensive group interviews they've ever done."[147] This would be the first official career-spanning documentary since 1989's 25x5: The Continuing Adventures of the Rolling Stones, which was filmed for their 25th anniversary in 1988.A new compilation album, GRRR!, was released on 12 November, available in four different formats and including two new tracks, "Doom and Gloom" and "One More Shot", which were recorded at Studio Guillaume Tell in Paris, France, some time within the last few weeks of August 2012.[148] The album debuted at #3 in the UK and #19 in the US, and its only single "Doom and Gloom" reached #61 on the UK Singles Chart.[123] The music video for "Doom and Gloom" featuring Noomi Rapace was released on 20 November.[149] GRRR! went on to move over 1.4 million copies worldwide.On 25 November 2012, the Stones kicked off their 50 & Counting tour at London's O2 Arena, where they were joined by Jeff Beck.[150] At their second show in London on 29 November the group were joined onstage by Eric Clapton and Florence Welch.[151] Their third anniversary concert took place on 8 December at the Barclays Center, Brooklyn, New York.[151] The last two dates were at the Prudential Center in Newark, New Jersey on 13 and 15 December, and the band were joined by Bruce Springsteen and blues rock band The Black Keys on the final night.[151][152] They also played two songs at 12-12-12: The Concert for Sandy Relief.[153]The Stones played nineteen shows in the US in spring 2013, before playing three shows in Europe, one at Glastonbury Festival 2013 and two in Hyde Park, London. On Richard Bacon's BBC Radio 5 Live show on 3 April 2013 it was announced that the Stones would hold a concert in Hyde Park as part of their 50th anniversary celebrations, although unlike their 1969 performance in the park it would not be free, tickets being £95 each.[154] Jagger quipped, "I'll try and keep the poetry to a minimum," and remarked, in respect of the white dress that he wore for the 1969 concert, "I can still just about get into the zippers."[154] Richards announced 9 April 2013 on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon that Mick Taylor would be performing with the band for shows on the 50 & Counting Tour.[155] The Rolling Stones made their Glastonbury debut, headlining on Saturday 29 June 2013.[156] Hyde Park Live, a live album recorded at Hyde Park on 6 and 13 July 2013, was released exclusively as a digital download through iTunes on 22 July 2013 and peaked at #16 in the UK and #19 in the US.[157][158] A live DVD, Sweet Summer Sun: Live in Hyde Park, was released on 11 November 2013.[159]Musical development[edit] The Rolling Stones are notable in modern popular music for assimilating various musical genres into their own collective sound. Throughout the band's career, their musical contributions have been marked by a continual reference and reliance on musical styles including blues, rhythm and blues, country, folk, reggae, dance, and world music, exemplified by Jones' collaboration with the Master Musicians of Jajouka, as well as traditional English styles that use stringed instrumentation like harps. Brian Jones experimented with the use of non-traditional instruments such as the sitar and slide guitar in their early days. The group started out covering early rock 'n' roll and blues songs, and have never stopped playing live or recording cover songs.Infusion of American blues[edit]Jagger and Richards shared an admiration of Jimmy Reed, Muddy Waters, and Little Walter, and their interest influenced Brian Jones, of whom Richards says, "He was more into T-Bone Walker and jazz blues stuff. We'd turn him onto Chuck Berry and say, 'Look, it's all the same shit, man, and you can do it.'"[3] Charlie Watts, a traditional jazz drummer, was also introduced to the blues through his association with the pair. "Keith and Brian turned me on to Jimmy Reed and people like that. I learned that Earl Phillips was playing on those records like a jazz drummer, playing swing, with a straight four..."[160]Jagger, recalling when he first heard the likes of Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Muddy Waters, Fats Domino, and other major American R&B artists, said it "seemed the most real thing"[161] he had heard up to that point. Similarly, Keith Richards, describing the first time he listened to Muddy Waters, said it was the "most powerful music [he had] ever heard...the most expressive."[162] He also stated, "when you think of some dopey, spotty seventeen year old from Dartford, who wants to be Muddy Waters-- and there were a lot of us-- in a way, very pathetic, but in another way, very... heartwarming".[163] Early songwriting:Despite the Rolling Stones' predilection for blues and R&B numbers on their early live setlists, the first original compositions by the band reflected a more wide-ranging interest. The first Jagger/Richards single, "Tell Me (You're Coming Back)", has been described by critic Richie Unterberger as a "pop rock ballad... When [Jagger and Richards] began to write songs, they were usually not derived from the blues, but were often surprisingly fey, slow, Mersey-type pop numbers".[164] "As Tears Go By", the ballad originally written for Marianne Faithfull, was one of the first songs written by Jagger and Richards and also one of many written by the duo for other artists. Jagger said of the song, "It's a relatively mature song considering the rest of the output at the time. And we didn't think of [recording] it, because The Rolling Stones were a butch blues group."[165] The Rolling Stones did later record a version which became a top five hit in the US.[166]On the early experience, Richards said, "The amazing thing is that although Mick and I thought these songs were really puerile and kindergarten-time, every one that got put out made a decent showing in the charts. That gave us extraordinary confidence to carry on, because at the beginning songwriting was something we were going to do in order to say to Andrew [Loog Oldham], 'Well, at least we gave it a try...'"[167] Jagger said, "We were very pop-orientated. We didn't sit around listening to Muddy Waters; we listened to everything. In some ways it's easy to write to order... Keith and I got into the groove of writing those kind of tunes; they were done in ten minutes. I think we thought it was a bit of a laugh, and it turned out to be something of an apprenticeship for us."[167]The writing of "The Last Time", the Rolling Stones' first major single, proved a turning point. Richards called it "a bridge into thinking about writing for the Stones. It gave us a level of confidence; a pathway of how to do it."[56] The song was based on a traditional gospel song popularised by the Staple Singers, but the Rolling Stones' number features a distinctive guitar riff, played by Brian Jones. Band members:Current members:Mick Jagger – lead and backing vocals, harmonica, guitars, bass, keyboards, percussion (1962–present)Keith Richards – guitars, bass, keyboards, backing and lead vocals, percussion (1962–present)Charlie Watts – drums, percussion (1963–present)Ronnie Wood – guitars, bass, saxophone, drums, backing vocals (1975–present) Former members:Mick Taylor – guitars, backing vocals (1969–1974)Brian Jones – guitars, harmonica, keyboards, sitar, accordion, marimba, dulcimer, autoharp, percussion, recorder, cello, mandolin, saxophone, backing vocals (1962–1969; died 1969)Ian Stewart – keyboards, percussion (1962–1963; died 1985)Bill Wyman – bass guitar, marimba, keyboards, percussion, backing vocals (1962–1993)Tony Chapman – drums (1962–1963)Dick Taylor – bass guitar (1962) Discography:Main article: The Rolling Stones discography: The Rolling Stones (1964, UK) / England's Newest Hit Makers (1964, US)The Rolling Stones No. 2 (1965, UK) / 12 X 5 (1964, US)The Rolling Stones, Now! (1965, US)Out of Our Heads (1965, UK) / Out of Our Heads (1965, US)December's Children (And Everybody's) (1965, US)Aftermath (1966, UK) / Aftermath (1966, US)Between the Buttons (1967, UK) / Between the Buttons (1967, US)Their Satanic Majesties Request (1967)Beggars Banquet (1968)Let It Bleed (1969)Sticky Fingers (1971)Exile on Main St. (1972)Goats Head Soup (1973)It's Only Rock 'n Roll (1974)Black and Blue (1976)Some Girls (1978)Emotional Rescue (1980)Tattoo You (1981)Undercover (1983)Dirty Work (1986)Steel Wheels (1989)Voodoo Lounge (1994)Bridges to Babylon (1997)A Bigger Bang (2005) &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& Eric Clapton CBEFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Eric Clapton performing at Hyde Park, London in June 2008Background informationBirth name Eric Patrick ClaptonAlso known as SlowhandBorn 30 March 1945 (age 68)Ripley, Surrey, EnglandGenres Rock, blues rock, psychedelic rock, hard rock, bluesOccupations Musician, singer-songwriter, record producer, artistInstruments Vocals, guitarYears active 1962–presentLabels Surfdog, Warner Bros., Reprise, Polydor, RSO, Atco, AppleAssociated acts The Yardbirds, John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers, Powerhouse, Robert Cray, Cream, Free Creek, the Dirty Mac, Blind Faith, JJ Cale, the Plastic Ono Band, Santana, Delaney, Bonnie & Friends, Derek and the Dominos, Sheryl Crow, the Beatles, Phil Collins, the Rolling Stones, Kate Bush, Luciano Pavarotti, the Band, Freddie King, B.B. King, Mark Knopfler, Brian Wilson, John Mayer, Roger Waters, Dire Straits, Elton John, George Harrison, Steve Winwood, Paul McCartney, Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble Notable instrumentsSee: Guitars sectionFender Stratocaster "Blackie""Fender Stratocaster "Brownie"" Eric Patrick Clapton, CBE, (born 30 March 1945) is an English musician, singer and songwriter. He is the only three-time inductee to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: once as a solo artist and separately as a member of the Yardbirds and Cream. Clapton has been referred to as one of the most important and influential guitarists of all time.[1] Clapton ranked second in Rolling Stone magazine's list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time"[2] and fourth in Gibson's "Top 50 Guitarists of All Time".[3]In the mid-1960s, Clapton left the Yardbirds to play blues with John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers. Immediately after leaving Mayall, Clapton joined Cream, a power trio with drummer Ginger Baker and bassist Jack Bruce in which Clapton played sustained blues improvisations and "arty, blues-based psychedelic pop."[4] For most of the 1970s, Clapton's output bore the influence of the mellow style of JJ Cale and the reggae of Bob Marley. His version of Marley's "I Shot the Sheriff" helped reggae reach a mass market.[5] Two of his most popular recordings were "Layla", recorded by Derek and the Dominos, another band he formed, and Robert Johnson's "Crossroads", recorded by Cream. Following the death of his son Conor in 1991, Clapton's grief was expressed in the song "Tears in Heaven", which featured in his Unplugged album.Clapton has been the recipient of 17 Grammy Awards, and the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music. In 2004, he was awarded a CBE at Buckingham Palace for services to music.[6][7][8] In 1998, Clapton, a recovering alcoholic and drug addict, founded the Crossroads Centre on Antigua, a medical facility for recovering substance abusers.[9] Contents: 1 Early life2 Early career, breakthrough, and international success2.1 The Yardbirds and the Bluesbreakers2.2 Cream2.3 Blind Faith, and Delaney and Bonnie and Friends3 "Layla" and solo career3.1 Derek and the Dominos3.2 Personal challenges and early solo success4 Continued success5 Resurgence and stardom6 Collaboration albums7 Clapton, Old Sock and recent events8 Influences9 Legacy10 Guitars11 Woman tone12 Other media appearances13 Personal life13.1 Relationships and children13.2 Political views13.3 Controversy over remarks on immigration13.4 Wealth and assets13.5 Charitable work14 Awards and honours15 Football16 Clapton's music in film and TV17 Discography17.1 Solo studio albums Eric Patrick Clapton was born in Ripley, Surrey, England, the son of 16-year-old Patricia Molly Clapton (b. 7 January 1929 d. March 1999) and Edward Walter Fryer (21 March 1920 – 15 May 1985), a 25-year-old soldier from Montreal, Quebec.[10] Fryer shipped off to war prior to Clapton's birth and then returned to Canada. Clapton grew up with his grandmother, Rose, and her second husband, Jack Clapp, who was stepfather to Patricia Clapton and her brother Adrian, believing they were his parents and that his mother was actually his older sister. The similarity in surnames gave rise to the erroneous belief that Clapton's real surname is Clapp (Reginald Cecil Clapton was the name of Rose's first husband, Eric Clapton's maternal grandfather).[11] Years later, his mother married another Canadian soldier and moved to Germany,[12] leaving young Eric with his grandparents in Surrey.[13]Clapton received an acoustic Hoyer guitar, made in Germany, for his thirteenth birthday, but the inexpensive steel-stringed instrument was difficult to play and he briefly lost interest.[13] Two years later Clapton picked it up again and started playing consistently.[13] Clapton was influenced by the blues from an early age, and practised long hours to learn the chords of blues music by playing along to the records.[14] He preserved his practice sessions using his portable Grundig reel-to-reel tape recorder, listening to them over and over until he felt he'd got it right.[14][15]In 1961, after leaving Hollyfield School in Surbiton, Clapton studied at the Kingston College of Art but was dismissed at the end of the academic year because his focus remained on music rather than art. His guitar playing was so advanced that, by the age of 16, he was getting noticed.[15] Around this time, Clapton began busking around Kingston, Richmond, and the West End.[16] In 1962, Clapton started performing as a duo with fellow blues enthusiast David Brock in pubs around Surrey.[15] When he was seventeen years old, Clapton joined his first band, an early British R&B group, the Roosters, whose other guitarist was Tom McGuinness. He stayed with this band from January through August 1963.[17] In October of that year, Clapton did a seven-gig stint with Casey Jones & the Engineers.[17] Early career, breakthrough, and international success: The Yardbirds and the Bluesbreakers:Main articles: The Yardbirds and John Mayall & the BluesbreakersIn October 1963, Clapton joined The Yardbirds, a blues-influenced rock and roll band, and stayed with them until March 1965. Synthesising influences from Chicago blues and leading blues guitarists such as Buddy Guy, Freddie King, and B. B. King, Clapton forged a distinctive style and rapidly became one of the most talked-about guitarists in the British music scene.[18] The band initially played Chess/Checker/Vee-Jay blues numbers and began to attract a large cult following when they took over the Rolling Stones' residency at the Crawdaddy Club in Richmond. They toured England with American bluesman Sonny Boy Williamson II; a joint LP album, recorded in December 1963, was issued in 1965. Since appearing at the Royal Albert Hall for the first time in 1964, Clapton has performed at the venue almost 200 times. It was during this time period that Clapton's Yardbirds rhythm guitarist, Chris Dreja, recalled that whenever Clapton broke a guitar string during a concert, he would stay on stage and replace it. The English audiences would wait out the delay by doing what is called a "slow handclap". Clapton told his official biographer, Ray Coleman, that, "My nickname of 'Slowhand' came from Giorgio Gomelsky. He coined it as a good pun. He kept saying I was a fast player, so he put together the slow handclap phrase into Slowhand as a play on words".[19] In December 1964, Clapton made his first appearance at the Royal Albert Hall, London with The Yardbirds. Since then, Clapton has performed at the Hall almost 200 times, and has stated that performing at the venue is like "playing in my front room".[20][21]In March 1965 the Yardbirds had their first major hit, "For Your Love", on which Clapton played guitar. The Yardbirds elected to move toward a pop-oriented sound, in part because of the success of "For Your Love", written by pop songwriter-for-hire Graham Gouldman (who would achieve success as a member of 10cc), who had also written hit songs for Herman's Hermits and The Hollies. Still musically devoted to the blues, Clapton was opposed to the move, and left the band. He recommended fellow guitarist Jimmy Page as his replacement, but Page declined out of loyalty to Clapton,[22] putting Jeff Beck forward.[18] While Beck and Page played together in the Yardbirds, the trio of Beck, Page, and Clapton were never in the group together. However, the trio did appear on the 12-date benefit tour for Action for Research into Multiple Sclerosis in 1983.Clapton joined John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers in April 1965, only to quit a few months later. In the summer of 1965 he left for Greece with a band called The Glands, which included his old friend Ben Palmer on piano. In November 1965 he rejoined John Mayall. During his second Bluesbreakers stint, Clapton gained a reputation as the best blues guitarist on the club circuit. Although Clapton gained world fame for his playing on the influential album, Blues Breakers – John Mayall – With Eric Clapton, this album was not released until he had left the band for the last time. Having swapped his Fender Telecaster and Vox AC30 amplifier for a 1960 Gibson Les Paul Standard guitar and Marshall amplifier, Clapton's sound and playing inspired a well-publicised graffito that deified him with the famous slogan "Clapton is God". The phrase was spray-painted by an admirer on a wall in an Islington Underground station in the autumn of 1967. The graffiti was captured in a now-famous photograph, in which a dog is urinating on the wall. Clapton is reported to have been embarrassed by the slogan, saying in his The South Bank Show profile in 1987, "I never accepted that I was the greatest guitar player in the world. I always wanted to be the greatest guitar player in the world, but that's an ideal, and I accept it as an ideal". The phrase began to appear in other areas of Islington throughout the mid-1960s.[23] Cream:Main article: Cream (band)Clapton left the Bluesbreakers in July 1966 (to be replaced by Peter Green) and was invited by drummer Ginger Baker to play in his newly formed band Cream, one of the earliest supergroups, with Jack Bruce on bass (previously of the Bluesbreakers, the Graham Bond Organisation and Manfred Mann). Before the formation of Cream, Clapton was not well known in the United States; he left the Yardbirds before "For Your Love" hit the American Top Ten, and had yet to perform there.[24] During his time with Cream, Clapton began to develop as a singer, songwriter, and guitarist, though Bruce took most of the lead vocals and wrote the majority of the material with lyricist Pete Brown.[18] Cream's first gig was an unofficial performance at the Twisted Wheel Club in Manchester on 29 July 1966 before their full debut two nights later at the National Jazz and Blues Festival in Windsor. Cream established its enduring legend with the high-volume blues jamming and extended solos of their live shows. Clapton (right) with Cream. By early 1967, as fans of the emerging blues-rock sound in Britain had begun to portray Clapton as Britain's top guitarist; however, he found himself rivalled by the emergence of Jimi Hendrix, an acid rock-infused guitarist who used wailing feedback and effects pedals to create new sounds for the instrument. Hendrix attended a performance of the newly formed Cream at the Central London Polytechnic on 1 October 1966, during which Hendrix sat in on a double-timed version of "Killing Floor". Top UK stars, including Clapton, Pete Townshend, and members of The Rolling Stones and The Beatles, avidly attended Hendrix's early club performances. Hendrix's arrival had an immediate and major effect on the next phase of Clapton's career, although Clapton continued to be recognised in UK music polls as the premier guitarist.Clapton first visited the United States while touring with Cream. In March 1967, Cream performed a nine-show stand at the RKO Theater in New York. They recorded Disraeli Gears in New York from 11–15 May 1967. Cream's repertoire varied from hard rock ("I Feel Free") to lengthy blues-based instrumental jams ("Spoonful"). Disraeli Gears featured Clapton's searing guitar lines, Bruce's soaring vocals and prominent, fluid bass playing, and Baker's powerful, polyrhythmic jazz-influenced drumming. Together, Cream's talents secured them as an influential power trio. Clapton's The Fool guitar (replica shown), with its bright artwork and famous "woman tone", was symbolic of the 1960s psychedelic rock era. In 28 months, Cream had become a commercial success, selling millions of records and playing throughout the U.S. and Europe. They redefined the instrumentalist's role in rock and were one of the first blues-rock bands to emphasise musical virtuosity and lengthy jazz-style improvisation sessions. Their U.S. hit singles include "Sunshine of Your Love" (#5, 1968), "White Room" (#6, 1968) and "Crossroads" (#28, 1969) – a live version of Robert Johnson's "Cross Road Blues". Though Cream was hailed as one of the greatest groups of its day, and the adulation of Clapton as a guitar legend reached new heights, the supergroup was short-lived. Drug and alcohol use escalated tension between the three members, and conflicts between Bruce and Baker eventually led to Cream's demise. A strongly critical Rolling Stone review of a concert of the group's second headlining U.S. tour was another significant factor in the trio's demise, and it affected Clapton profoundly.[25]Cream's farewell album, Goodbye, featuring live performances recorded at The Forum, Los Angeles, 19 October 1968, was released shortly after Cream disbanded; it also featured the studio single "Badge", co-written by Clapton and George Harrison. Clapton met Harrison and became friends with him after the Beatles shared a bill with the Clapton-era Yardbirds at the London Palladium. The close friendship between Clapton and Harrison resulted in Clapton playing on Harrison's "While My Guitar Gently Weeps" from the Beatles' White Album (1968). Harrison also released his solo debut album, Wonderwall Music, in 1968. It became the first of many Harrison solo records to feature Clapton on guitar. Clapton would go largely uncredited for his contributions to Harrison's albums due to contractual restraints. The pair would often play live together as each other's guest. A year after Harrison's death in 2001, Clapton helped organise a tribute concert, for which he was musical director.[26] In 1969, when The Beatles were recording/filming what became Let It Be, tensions became so acute that Harrison quit the group for several days, prompting the others to consider replacing him with Clapton, an idea that particularly appealed to John Lennon, who was captured on tape saying that if: "George doesn’t come back by Monday or Tuesday, we ask Eric Clapton to play", and that this would be congenial to Clapton in that The Beatles, unlike Cream, "would give him full scope to play his guitar".[27] Years later, Clapton commented on the absurdity of this idea: "There may have been [a suggestion that I would be asked to join The Beatles in January 1969]. The problem with that was I had bonded or was developing a relationship with George, exclusive of them. I think it fitted a need of his and mine, that he could elevate himself by having this guy that could be like a gunslinger to them. Lennon would use my name every now and then for clout, as if I was the fastest gun. So, I don’t think I could have been brought into the whole thing because I was too much a mate of George’s".[27]Cream briefly reunited in 1993 to perform at the ceremony inducting them into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame; a full reunion took place in May 2005, with Clapton, Bruce, and Baker playing four sold-out concerts at London's Royal Albert Hall,[28] and three shows at New York's Madison Square Garden that October.[29] Recordings from the London shows, Royal Albert Hall London May 2-3-5-6, 2005, were released on CD, LP, and DVD in September/December 2005.[30] Blind Faith, and Delaney and Bonnie and Friends: Main articles: Blind Faith and Delaney and Bonnie and Friends: Clapton's next group, Blind Faith (1969), was composed of Cream drummer Ginger Baker, Steve Winwood of Traffic, and Ric Grech of Family, and yielded one LP and one arena-circuit tour. The supergroup debuted before 100,000 fans in London's Hyde Park on 7 June 1969. They performed several dates in Scandinavia and began a sold-out American tour in July before their only album was released. The LP Blind Faith consisted of just six songs, one of them a 15-minute jam entitled "Do What You Like". The album's jacket image of a topless pubescent girl was deemed controversial in the United States and was replaced by a photograph of the band. Blind Faith dissolved after less than seven months.Clapton subsequently toured as a sideman for an act that had opened for Blind Faith, Delaney and Bonnie and Friends. He also played two dates as a member of The Plastic Ono Band that autumn, including a recorded performance at the Toronto Rock and Roll Revival in September 1969 released as the album Live Peace in Toronto 1969.[31] On 30 September 1969, Clapton played lead guitar on Lennon's second solo single, Cold Turkey.[32] On 15 December 1969 Clapton performed with John Lennon, George Harrison, and others as the Plastic Ono Band at a fundraiser for UNICEF in London.[31]Delaney Bramlett encouraged Clapton in his singing and writing. During the summer of 1969, Clapton and Bramlett contributed to the Music From Free Creek "supersession" project. Clapton, appearing as "King Cool" for contractual reasons, played with Dr. John on three songs, joined by Bramlett on two tracks.Using the Bramletts' backing group and an all-star cast of session players (including Leon Russell and Stephen Stills), Clapton recorded his first solo album during two brief tour hiatuses, fittingly named Eric Clapton. Delaney Bramlett co-wrote six of the songs with Clapton,[33] and Bonnie Bramlett co-wrote "Let It Rain".[34] The album yielded the unexpected U.S. No. 18 hit, J. J. Cale's "After Midnight". Clapton went with Delaney and Bonnie from the stage to the studio with the Dominos to record George Harrison's All Things Must Pass in spring 1970. During this busy period, Clapton also recorded with other artists including Dr. John, Leon Russell, Plastic Ono Band, Billy Preston, Stephen Stills, Ringo Starr and Dave Mason.Other notable recordings from this period include Clapton's guitar work on "Go Back Home" from Stephen Stills' self-titled first solo album."Layla" and solo career[edit] Derek and the Dominos[edit]Main article: Derek and the Dominos "Layla" as performed by Derek and the Dominos With the intention of counteracting the "star" cult faction that had begun to form around him, Clapton assembled a new band composed of Delaney and Bonnie's former rhythm section, Bobby Whitlock as keyboardist and vocalist, Carl Radle as the bassist, and drummer Jim Gordon, with Clapton playing guitar. It was his intention to show that he need not fill a starring role, and functioned well as a member of an ensemble.[35] During this period, Clapton was increasingly influenced by The Band and their album Music from Big Pink, saying, "What I appreciated about The Band was that they were more concerned with songs and singing. They would have three- and four-part harmonies, and the guitar was put back into perspective as being accompaniment. That suited me well, because I had gotten so tired of the virtuosity—or pseudo-virtuosity—thing of long, boring guitar solos just because they were expected. The Band brought things back into perspective. The priority was the song."[36] Clapton (right) with Derek and the Dominos. The band was originally called "Eric Clapton and Friends". The name "Derek and the Dominos" was a fluke that occurred when the band's provisional name of "Del and the Dynamos" was misread as Derek and the Dominos.[37] Clapton's biography states that Tony Ashton of Ashton, Gardner and Dyke told Clapton to call the band "Del and the Dominos", since "Del" was his nickname for Eric Clapton. Del and Eric were combined and the final name became "Derek and the Dominos".[38]Clapton's close friendship with George Harrison brought him into contact with Harrison's wife, Pattie Boyd, with whom he became deeply infatuated. When she spurned his advances, Clapton's unrequited affections prompted most of the material for the Dominos' album, Layla and Other Assorted Love Songs (1970). Heavily blues-influenced, the album features the twin lead guitars of Duane Allman and Clapton, with Allman's slide guitar as a key ingredient of the sound. Working at Criteria Studios in Miami with Atlantic Records producer Tom Dowd, who had worked with Clapton on Cream's Disraeli Gears, the band recorded a double album.The album features the hit love song "Layla", inspired by the classical poet of Persian literature, Nizami Ganjavi's The Story of Layla and Majnun, a copy of which Ian Dallas had given to Clapton. The book moved Clapton profoundly, as it was the tale of a young man who fell hopelessly in love with a beautiful, unavailable woman and who went crazy because he could not marry her.[39][40] The two parts of "Layla" were recorded in separate sessions: the opening guitar section was recorded first, and for the second section, laid down several months later, drummer Jim Gordon composed and played the piano part.[38]The Layla LP was actually recorded by a five-piece version of the group, thanks to the unforeseen inclusion of guitarist Duane Allman of The Allman Brothers Band. A few days into the Layla sessions, Dowd—who was also producing the Allmans—invited Clapton to an Allman Brothers outdoor concert in Miami. The two guitarists met first on stage, then played all night in the studio, and became friends. Duane first added his slide guitar to "Tell the Truth" and "Nobody Knows You When You're Down and Out". In four days, the five-piece Dominos recorded "Key to the Highway", "Have You Ever Loved a Woman" (a blues standard popularised by Freddie King and others), and "Why Does Love Got to be So Sad". In September, Duane briefly left the sessions for gigs with his own band, and the four-piece Dominos recorded "I Looked Away", "Bell Bottom Blues", and "Keep on Growing". Duane returned to record "I am Yours", "Anyday", and "It's Too Late". On 9 September, they recorded Hendrix's "Little Wing" and the title track. The following day, the final track, "It's Too Late", was recorded.[41] Eric Clapton in Barcelona, 1974. Tragedy dogged the group throughout its brief career. During the sessions, Clapton was devastated by news of the death of Jimi Hendrix; eight days previously the band had cut a cover of "Little Wing" as a tribute to Hendrix. On 17 September 1970, one day before Hendrix's death, Clapton had purchased a left-handed Fender Stratocaster that he had planned to give to Hendrix as a birthday gift. Adding to Clapton's woes, the Layla album received only lukewarm reviews upon release. The shaken group undertook a U.S. tour without Allman, who had returned to the Allman Brothers Band. Despite Clapton's later admission that the tour took place amidst a veritable blizzard of drugs and alcohol, it resulted in the live double album In Concert.[42] The band had recorded several tracks for a second album in London during the spring of 1971 (five of which were released on the Eric Clapton box-set Crossroads), but the results were mediocre.A second record was in the works when a clashing of egos took place and Clapton walked, thus disbanding the group. Allman was killed in a motorcycle accident on 29 October 1971. Clapton wrote later in his autobiography that he and Allman were inseparable during the sessions in Florida; he talked about Allman as the "musical brother I'd never had but wished I did."[43] Although Radle would remain Clapton's bass player until the summer of 1979 (Radle died in May 1980 from the effects of alcohol and narcotics), it would be 2003 before Clapton and Whitlock appeared together again (Clapton guested on Whitlock's appearance on the Later with Jools Holland show). Another tragic footnote to the Dominos story was the fate of drummer Jim Gordon, who was an undiagnosed schizophrenic and years later murdered his mother during a psychotic episode. Gordon was confined to 16-years-to-life imprisonment, later being moved to a mental institution, where he remains today.[18]Personal challenges and early solo success[edit]Clapton's career successes in the 1970s were in stark contrast with the struggles he coped with in his personal life, which was troubled by romantic longings and drug and alcohol addiction.[44] He became infatuated with Pattie Boyd, who at the time was married to close friend George Harrison, he withdrew from recording and touring as the band broke up to isolation in his Surrey, England, residence. There he nursed a heroin addiction, which resulted in a lengthy career hiatus interrupted only by the Concert for Bangladesh in August 1971 (where he passed out on stage, was revived, and managed to finish his performance).[18] In January 1973, The Who's Pete Townshend organised a comeback concert for Clapton at London's Rainbow Theatre, aptly titled the "Rainbow Concert", to help Clapton kick his addiction. Clapton would return the favour by playing 'The Preacher' in Ken Russell's film version of The Who's Tommy in 1975; his appearance in the film (performing "Eyesight to the Blind") is notable as he is clearly wearing a fake beard in some shots, the result of deciding to shave off his real beard after the initial takes in an attempt to force the director to remove his earlier scene from the movie and leave the set.[38] Yvonne Elliman with Clapton promoting 461 Ocean Boulevard in 1975. In 1974, Clapton was partnered with Pattie Boyd (they would not actually marry until 1979) and no longer using heroin (although he gradually began to drink heavily). He assembled a low-key touring band that included Radle, Miami guitarist George Terry, keyboardist Dick Sims (who died in 2011[45]), drummer Jamie Oldaker, and vocalists Yvonne Elliman and Marcy Levy (also known as Marcella Detroit). With this band Clapton recorded 461 Ocean Boulevard (1974), an album with an emphasis on more compact songs and fewer guitar solos; the cover version of "I Shot The Sheriff" was Clapton's first No. 1 hit and was important in bringing reggae and the music of Bob Marley to a wider audience. The 1975 album There's One in Every Crowd continued this trend. The album's original title, The World's Greatest Guitar Player (There's One in Every Crowd), was changed before pressing, as it was felt its ironic intention would be misunderstood. The band toured the world and subsequently released the 1975 live LP, E.C. Was Here.[46] Clapton continued to release albums and toured regularly. Highlights of the period include No Reason to Cry (a collaboration with Bob Dylan and The Band); Slowhand, which featured "Wonderful Tonight and a second JJ Cale cover, "Cocaine". In 1976 he performed, alongside a string of notable guests, to pay tribute to the farewell performance of The Band, filmed in a Martin Scorsese documentary called The Last Waltz.Continued success[edit] In 1981 Clapton was invited by producer Martin Lewis to appear at the Amnesty International benefit The Secret Policeman's Other Ball. Clapton accepted the invitation and teamed up with Jeff Beck to perform a series of duets—reportedly their first-ever billed stage collaboration. Three of the performances were released on the album of the show, and one of the songs was featured in the film. The performances heralded a return to form and prominence for Clapton in the new decade. Many factors had influenced Clapton's comeback, including his "deepening commitment to Christianity", to which he had converted prior to his heroin addiction.[47][48][49]After an embarrassing fishing incident, Clapton finally called his manager and admitted he was an alcoholic. In January 1982 Roger and Clapton flew to Minneapolis – St. Paul; Clapton would be checked in at Hazelden Treatment Center, located in Center City, Minnesota. On the flight over, Clapton indulged in a large number of drinks, for fear he would never be able to drink again. Clapton is quoted as saying from his autobiography, "In the lowest moments of my life, the only reason I didn't commit suicide was that I knew I wouldn't be able to drink any more if I was dead. It was the only thing I thought was worth living for, and the idea that people were about to try and remove me from alcohol was so terrible that I drank and drank and drank, and they had to practically carry me into the clinic."[50] Tina Turner and Eric Clapton at Wembley Arena, 18 June 1987. After being discharged, it was recommended by doctors of Hazelden that Clapton not partake in any activities that would act as triggers for his alcoholism or stress, until he was fully situated back at Hurtwood. A few months after his discharge, Clapton began working on his next album, against the Hazelden doctors' orders. Working with Tom Dowd, Clapton produced what he thought as his "most forced" album to date, Money and Cigarettes.In 1984 he performed on Pink Floyd member Roger Waters' solo album, The Pros and Cons of Hitch Hiking, and went on tour with Waters following the release of the album. Since then Waters and Clapton have had a close relationship. In 2005 they performed together for the Tsunami Relief Fund. In 2006 they performed at the Highclere Castle, in aid of the Countryside Alliance, playing two set pieces of "Wish You Were Here" and "Comfortably Numb". Clapton, now a seasoned charity performer, played at the Live Aid concert on 13 July 1985.[51] When offered a slot close to peak viewing hours, he was apparently flattered. As Clapton recovered from his addictions, his album output continued in the 1980s, including two produced with Phil Collins, 1985's Behind the Sun, which produced the hits "Forever Man" and "She's Waiting", and 1986's August. George Harrison and Clapton at the Prince's Trust Concert, Wembley Arena, 1987. August was suffused with Collins's trademark drum and horn sound, and became Clapton's biggest seller in the UK to date, matching his highest chart position, number 3. The album's first track, the hit "It's in the Way That You Use It", was featured in the Tom Cruise – Paul Newman movie The Color of Money. The horn-peppered "Run" echoed Collins' "Sussudio" and rest of the producer's Genesis/solo output, while "Tearing Us Apart" (with Tina Turner) and the unimpressed "Miss You" echoed Clapton's angry sound. This rebound kicked off Clapton's two-year period of touring with Collins and their August collaborates, bassist Nathan East and keyboard player/songwriter Greg Phillinganes. While on tour for August, two concert videos were recorded of the four-man band, Eric Clapton Live from Montreux and Eric Clapton and Friends. Clapton later remade "After Midnight" as a single and a promotional track for the Michelob beer brand, which had also marketed earlier songs by Collins and Steve Winwood. Clapton won a British Academy Television Award for his collaboration with Michael Kamen on the score for the 1985 BBC Television thriller serial Edge of Darkness. In 1989, Clapton released Journeyman, an album which covered a wide range of styles including blues, jazz, soul and pop. Collaborators included George Harrison, Phil Collins, Daryl Hall, Chaka Khan, Mick Jones, David Sanborn and Robert Cray. At the 1987 Brit Awards in London, Clapton was awarded the prize for Outstanding Contribution to Music.[8]Resurgence and stardom[edit] The 1990s brought a series of 32 concerts to the Royal Albert Hall, such as the 24 Nights series of concerts that took place around January through February 1990, and February to March 1991. On 27 August 1990, fellow blues guitarist Stevie Ray Vaughan, who was touring with Clapton, and three members of their road crew were killed in a helicopter crash between concerts. Then, on 20 March 1991, Clapton's four-year-old son, Conor, died after falling from the 53rd-floor window of his mother's friend's New York City apartment at 117 East 57th Street. Conor's funeral took place on 28 March at St Mary Magdelene's Church in Clapton's home village in Ripley, Surrey.[52] Clapton's grief was expressed in the song "Tears in Heaven", which was co-written by Will Jennings. At the 35th Grammy Awards, Clapton received six Grammy Awards for the single "Tears in Heaven" and his Unplugged album.[53] The album reached number one on the Billboard 200, and has since been certified Diamond by the RIAA for selling over 10 million copies in the United States.[54] On 9 September 1992, Clapton performed "Tears in Heaven" at the 1992 MTV Video Music Awards in Los Angeles, and won the award for Best Male Video.[55][56]In October 1992 Clapton was among the dozens of artists performing at Bob Dylan's 30th Anniversary Concert Celebration. Recorded at Madison Square Garden in New York City, the live two-disk CD/DVD captured a show full of celebrities performing classic Dylan songs, before ending with a few performances from Dylan himself. Despite the presence of 10 other guitarists on stage, including George Harrison, Neil Young, Roger McGuinn, Steve Cropper, Tom Petty, and Dylan, Clapton played the lead on a nearly 7-minute version of Dylan's "Knockin' on Heaven's Door" as part of the finale.While Unplugged featured Clapton playing acoustic guitar, his 1994 album From the Cradle contained new versions of old blues standards, highlighted by his electric guitar playing.[57] Clapton's 1996 recording of the Wayne Kirkpatrick/Gordon Kennedy/Tommy Sims tune "Change the World" (featured in the soundtrack of the movie Phenomenon) won the Grammy Award for Song of the Year in 1997, the same year he recorded Retail Therapy (an album of electronic music with Simon Climie under the pseudonym TDF). The following year, Clapton released the album Pilgrim, the first record featuring new material for almost a decade.[49] Clapton finished the twentieth century with collaborations with Carlos Santana and B. B. King.In 1996 Clapton had a relationship with singer/songwriter Sheryl Crow. They remain friends, and Clapton appeared as a guest on Crow's Central Park Concert. The duo performed a Cream hit single, "White Room". Later, Clapton and Crow performed an alternate version of "Tulsa Time" with other guitar legends at the Crossroads Guitar Festival in June 2007.In 1998 Clapton, then 53, met 22-year-old administrative assistant Melia McEnery in Columbus, Ohio, at a party given for him after a performance. He quietly dated her for a year, and went public with the relationship in 1999. They married on 1 January 2002 at St Mary Magdalene church in Clapton's birthplace, Ripley. As of 2005 they have three daughters, Julie Rose (13 June 2001), Ella May (14 January 2003), and Sophie Belle (1 February 2005).At the 41st Grammy Awards on 24 February 1999, Clapton received his third Grammy Award for Best Male Pop Vocal Performance, for his song "My Father's Eyes".[58] In October 1999, the compilation album, Clapton Chronicles: The Best of Eric Clapton, was released, which contained a new song, "Blue Eyes Blue", that also appears in soundtrack for the film, Runaway Bride.[59][60] Collaboration albums: Performance for Tsunami Relief Cardiff in 2005. Following the release of the 2001 record Reptile, in June 2002, Clapton performed "Layla" and "While My Guitar Gently Weeps" at the Party at the Palace concert in the grounds of Buckingham Palace.[61] On 29 November 2002, the Concert for George was held at the Royal Albert Hall, a tribute to George Harrison, who had died a year earlier of lung cancer.[62] Clapton was a performer and the musical director. The concert featured Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, Jeff Lynne, Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers, Ravi Shankar, Gary Brooker, Billy Preston, Joe Brown and Dhani Harrison.[62] In 2004, Clapton released two albums of covers of songs by bluesman Robert Johnson, Me and Mr. Johnson and Sessions for Robert J. In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked Clapton No. 53 on their list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time".[63] Clapton performing at the Ahoy Arena of Rotterdam in 1 June 2006. On 22 January 2005, Clapton performed in the Tsunami Relief Concert held at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, in aid of the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. In May 2005 Eric Clapton, Jack Bruce, and Ginger Baker reunited as Cream for a series of concerts at the Royal Albert Hall in London. Concert recordings were released on CD and DVD. Later, Cream performed in New York at Madison Square Garden. Back Home, Clapton's first album of new original material in nearly five years, was released on Reprise Records on 30 August. In 2006 he invited Derek Trucks and Doyle Bramhall II to join his band for his 2006–2007 world tour. Trucks is the third member of the Allman Brothers Band to tour supporting Clapton, the second being pianist/keyboardist Chuck Leavell, who appeared on the MTV Unplugged album and the 24 Nights performances at the Royal Albert Hall theatre of London in 1990 and 1991, as well as Clapton's 1992 U.S. tour.[64]On 20 May 2006, Clapton performed with Queen drummer Roger Taylor and former Pink Floyd bassist/songwriter Roger Waters at the Highclere Castle, Hampshire, in support of the Countryside Alliance.[65] On 13 August 2006, Clapton made a guest appearance at the Bob Dylan concert in Columbus, Ohio, playing guitar on three songs in Jimmie Vaughan's opening act.[66] A collaboration with guitarist J. J. Cale, titled The Road to Escondido, was released on 7 November 2006, featuring Derek Trucks and Billy Preston. The 14-track CD was produced and recorded by the duo in August 2005 in California. The chemistry between Trucks and Clapton convinced him to invite The Derek Trucks Band to open for Clapton's set at his 2007 Crossroads Guitar Festival. Trucks remained on set afterward, performed with Clapton's band throughout his performances, and later embarked on a world tour with him.The rights to Clapton's official memoirs, written by Christopher Simon Sykes and published in 2007, were sold at the 2005 Frankfurt Book Fair for US$4 million.[67]On 26 February 2008, it was reported that North Korean officials had invited Clapton to play a concert in the communist state.[68] Clapton's management received the invitation and passed it on to the singer, who agreed in principle and suggested it take place sometime in 2009.[69] Kristen Foster, a spokesperson, said, "Eric Clapton receives numerous offers to play in countries around the world," and "[t]here is no agreement whatsoever for him to play in North Korea."[70] Eric Clapton (fourth from left) and his band live in 2007. In 2007 Clapton learned more about his father, a Canadian soldier who left the UK after the war. Although Clapton's grandparents eventually told him the truth about his parentage, he only knew that his father's name was Edward Fryer. This was a source of disquiet for Clapton, as witnessed by his 1998 song "My Father's Eyes". A Montreal journalist named Michael Woloschuk researched Canadian Armed Forces service records and tracked down members of Fryer's family, and finally pieced together the story. He learned that Clapton's father was Edward Walter Fryer, born 21 March 1920, in Montreal and died 15 May 1985 in Newmarket, Ontario. Fryer was a musician (piano and saxophone) and a lifelong drifter who was married several times, had several children, and apparently never knew that he was the father of Eric Clapton.[71] Clapton thanked Woloschuk in an encounter at Macdonald Cartier Airport, in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.[72]In February 2008 Clapton performed with his long-time friend Steve Winwood at Madison Square Garden and guested on his recorded single, "Dirty City", on Winwood's album Nine Lives. The two former Blind Faith bandmates met again for a series of 14 concerts throughout the United States in June 2009.Clapton's 2008 Summer Tour began on 3 May at the Ford Amphitheatre, Tampa, Florida, and then moved to Canada, Ireland, England, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Poland, Germany, and Monaco. On 28 June 2008, he headlined Saturday night for Hard Rock Calling 2008 in London's Hyde Park (previously Hyde Park Calling) with support from Sheryl Crow and John Mayer.[73][74] In September 2008 Clapton performed at a private charity fundraiser for The Countryside Alliance at Floridita in Soho, London, that included such guests as the London Mayor Boris Johnson. Clapton performing with The Allman Brothers Band at the Beacon Theatre, New York City. In March 2009, the Allman Brothers Band (amongst many notable guests) celebrated their 40th year, dedicating their string of concerts to the late Duane Allman on their annual run at the Beacon Theatre. Eric Clapton was one of the performers, with drummer Butch Trucks remarking that the performance was not the typical Allman Brothers experience, given the number and musical styles of the guests who were invited to perform. Songs like "In Memory of Elizabeth Reed" were punctuated with others, including "The Weight", with Levon Helm; Johnny Winter sitting in on Hendrix's "Red House"; and "Layla". On 4 May 2009 Clapton appeared as a featured guest at the Royal Albert Hall, playing "Further on Up the Road" with Joe Bonamassa.Clapton was scheduled to be one of the performers at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 25th anniversary concert in Madison Square Garden on 30 October 2009, but cancelled due to gallstone surgery.[75] Van Morrison (who also cancelled)[76] said in an interview that he and Clapton were to do a "couple of songs", but that they would do something else together at "some other stage of the game".[77] Clapton, Old Sock and recent events: Clapton performed a two-night show with Jeff Beck at London's O2 Arena on 13–14 February 2010.[78] The two former Yardbirds extended their 2010 tour with stops at Madison Square Garden,[79] the Air Canada Centre in Toronto, and the Bell Centre in Montreal.[80] Clapton performed a series of concerts in 11 cities throughout the United States from 25 February to 13 March 2010, including Roger Daltrey as opening act. His third European tour with Steve Winwood began on 18 May and ended 13 June, including Tom Norris as opening act. He then began a short North American tour lasting from 26 June to 3 July, starting with his third Crossroads Guitar Festival on 26 June at Toyota Park in Bridgeview, Illinois. Clapton released a new studio album, Clapton, on 27 September 2010 in the United Kingdom and 28 September 2010 in the United States. On 17 November 2010, Clapton performed as guest on the Prince's Trust rock gala held at the Royal Albert Hall, supported by the house band for the evening, which included Jools Holland, Midge Ure and Mark King.[81]On 24 June 2011 Clapton was in concert with Pino Daniele in Cava de' Tirreni stadium, Italy, with an audience of 15,000 people before performing a series of concerts in South America from 6 to 16 October 2011. He spent November and December 2011 touring Japan with Steve Winwood, playing 13 shows in various cities throughout the country. On 24 February 2012 Clapton, Keith Richards, Gary Clark Jr., Derek Trucks, Doyle Bramhall II, Kim Wilson and other artists performed together in the Howlin' For Hubert Tribute concert held at the Apollo Theater of New York honouring blues guitarist Hubert Sumlin who died at age 80 in 4 December 2011. On 29 November 2012, Clapton joined the Rolling Stones at London's O2 Arena during the band's second of five arena dates celebrating their 50th anniversary. He played guitar on Muddy Waters' Champagne and Reefer.[82] On 12 December 2012, Clapton performed The Concert for Sandy Relief at Madison Square Garden, broadcast live via television, radio, movie theaters and the Internet across six continents.[83]In January 2013, Surfdog Records announced a signed deal with Eric for the release of his forthcoming album Old Sock on 12 March. On 8 April 2013, Eric and Hard Rock International launched the limited-edition Eric Clapton Artist Spotlight merchandise programme benefiting Crossroads Centre Antigua.[84] Clapton toured the United States and Europe from 14 March to 19 June 2013 to celebrate his 50 years as a professional musician.[85]On 15 October 2013 Eric's popular Unplugged album and concert DVD were re-released, titled Unplugged: Expanded & Remastered. The album includes the original 14 tracks, remastered, as well as 6 additional tracks, including 2 versions of My Father's Eyes. The DVD includes a restored version of the concert, as well as over 60 minutes of unseen footage from the rehearsal.On November 13 and 14, 2013 Clapton headlined the final two evenings of the "Baloise Sessions", an annual indoor music festival in Basel, Switzerland. The concerts took place in the Event Halle, Messe Basel and a one hour broadcasting from this performance was aired on Swiss radio SRF3 on 18 November 2013. Clapton scheduled a series of concerts in Asia, the United States and Europe from February 18 to June 28, 2014.Influences[edit] Clapton cites Freddie King, B.B. King, Albert King, Buddy Guy, and Hubert Sumlin as guitar playing influences. Clapton stated blues musician Robert Johnson to be his single most important influence. In 2004 Clapton released CDs and DVDs entitled Sessions for Robert Johnson, featuring Clapton covering Robert Johnson songs using electric and acoustic guitars.[86]Clapton co-authored with others the book Discovering Robert Johnson, in which Clapton said Johnson was[87]"...the most important blues musician who ever lived. He was true, absolutely, to his own vision, and as deep as I have gotten into the music over the last 30 years, I have never found anything more deeply soulful than Robert Johnson. His music remains the most powerful cry that I think you can find in the human voice, really. ... it seemed to echo something I had always felt." Legacy: Clapton has been referred to as one of the most important and influential guitarists of all time.[1][88][89][90] Clapton is the only three-time inductee to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: once as a solo artist, and separately as a member of The Yardbirds and Cream.[4] He ranked second in Rolling Stone magazine's list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time"[2] and fourth in Gibson's Top 50 Guitarists of All Time.[3]Guitarists influenced by Clapton include Slash, Allen Collins, Richie Sambora, Stevie Ray Vaughan, Gary Moore, Duane Allman, Derek Trucks,[91] Eddie Van Halen, Brian May, Tony Iommi, Lenny Kravitz, Ted Nugent, Orianthi, Vince Gill, Brad Paisley, Jonny Buckland, Joe Don Rooney, Alex Lifeson, Jonny Lang, John Mayer, Joe Satriani, Joe Bonamassa, Davy Knowles, Lindsay Ell,[92] Neal Schon, and Mark Knopfler. Guitars: Clapton on the There's One in Every Crowd Tour, with "Blackie" on 15 August 1975. Clapton's choice of electric guitars has been as notable as the man himself; alongside Hank Marvin, The Beatles and Jimi Hendrix, Clapton exerted a crucial and widespread influence in popularising particular models of electric guitar.[93] With the Yardbirds, Clapton played a Fender Telecaster, a Fender Jazzmaster, a double-cutaway Gretsch 6120, and a 1964 Cherry-Red Gibson ES-335. He became exclusively a Gibson player for a period beginning in mid-1965, when he purchased a used sunburst Gibson Les Paul guitar from a guitar store in London. Clapton commented on the slim profile of the neck, which would indicate it was a 1960 model.[94]Early during his stint in Cream, Clapton's first Les Paul Standard was stolen. He continued to play Les Pauls exclusively with Cream (one bought from Andy Summers was almost identical to the stolen guitar)[95] until 1967, when he acquired his most famous guitar in this period, a 1964 Gibson SG.[96] Just before Cream's first U.S. appearance in 1967, Clapton's SG, Bruce's Fender VI, and Baker's drum head were all repainted in psychedelic designs created by the visual art collective known as The Fool. In 1968 Clapton bought a Gibson Firebird and started using the 1964 Cherry-Red Gibson ES-335 again.[96] The aforementioned 1964 ES-335 had a storied career. Clapton used it at the last Cream show in November 1968 as well as with Blind Faith, played it sparingly for slide pieces in the 1970s, used it on "Hard Times" from Journeyman, the Hyde Park live concert of 1996, and the From the Cradle sessions and tour of 1994–95. It was sold for US$847,500 at a 2004 auction.[97] Gibson produced a limited run of 250 "Crossroads 335" replicas. The 335 was only the second electric guitar Clapton bought.[98]In July 1968 Clapton gave George Harrison a 1957 'goldtop' Gibson Les Paul that been refinished with a red colour. The following September, Clapton played the guitar on the Beatles' studio recording of "While My Guitar Gently Weeps". His SG found its way into the hands of George Harrison's friend Jackie Lomax, who subsequently sold it to musician Todd Rundgren for US$500 in 1972. Rundgren restored the guitar and nicknamed it "Sunny", after "Sunshine of Your Love". He retained it until 2000, when he sold it at an auction for US$150,000.[96] At the 1969 Blind Faith concert in Hyde Park, London Clapton played a Fender Custom Telecaster, which was fitted with "Brownie"'s neck.In late 1969 Clapton made the switch to the Fender Stratocaster. "I had a lot of influences when I took up the Strat. First there was Buddy Holly, and Buddy Guy. Hank Marvin was the first well known person over here in England who was using one, but that wasn't really my kind of music. Steve Winwood had so much credibility, and when he started playing one, I thought, oh, if he can do it, I can do it."[99] The first—used during the recording of Eric Clapton—was "Brownie", which in 1974 became the backup to the most famous of all Clapton's guitars, "Blackie". In November 1970 Eric bought six Fender Stratocasters from the Sho-bud guitar shop in Nashville, Tennessee while on tour with the Dominos. He gave one each to George Harrison, Steve Winwood, and Pete Townshend. Clapton with Blackie, while on tour in the Netherlands, 1978. Clapton assembled the best components of the remaining three to create "Blackie", which was his favourite stage guitar until its retirement in 1985. It was first played live 13 January 1973 at the Rainbow Concert.[100] Clapton called the 1956/57 Strat a "mongrel".[101] On 24 June 2004, Clapton sold "Blackie" at Christie's Auction House, New York, for US$959,500 to raise funds for his Crossroads Centre for drug and alcohol addictions. "Brownie" is now on display at the Experience Music Project.[102] The Fender Custom Shop has since produced a limited run of 275 'Blackie' replicas, correct in every detail right down to the 'Duck Brothers' flight case, and artificially aged using Fender's 'Relic' process to simulate years of hard wear. One was presented to Eric upon the model's release and was used for three numbers during a concert at the Royal Albert Hall on 17 May 2006.[103]In 1981 Clapton gave his signed Fender Lead II guitar to the Hard Rock Cafe to designate his favourite bar stool. Pete Townshend also donated his own Gibson Les Paul guitar, with a note attached: "Mine's as good as his! Love, Pete."[104]In 1988 Fender honoured Clapton with the introduction of his signature Eric Clapton Stratocaster.[105] This, and the Yngwie Malmsteen Stratocaster, were the first two artist models in the Stratocaster range. Since then, the artist series has grown to include models inspired by Clapton's contemporaries such as Rory Gallagher, Mark Knopfler, Jeff Beck, and Stevie Ray Vaughan, and by those who have influenced him, such as Buddy Guy. Clapton uses Ernie Ball Slinky and Super Slinky strings, gauge .10 to.46.[106] Clapton has been honoured with several signature-model 000-sized acoustic guitars made by the American firm of C.F. Martin & Company. The first, of these, introduced in 1995, was a limited edition 000-42EC Eric Clapton signature model with a production run of 461. As of December 2007, Martin had produced seven EC signature models.[107] His 1939 000-42 Martin that he played on the Unplugged album sold for US$791,500 at auction.[97] Clapton plays a custom 000-ECHF Martin these days.In 1999, Clapton auctioned off some of his guitar collection to raise more than US$5 million for continuing support of the Crossroads Centre in Antigua, which he founded in 1997.[108] The Crossroads Centre is a treatment base for addictive disorders such as drugs and alcohol. In 2004 Clapton organised and participated in the Crossroads Guitar Festival to benefit the Centre. A second guitar auction, including the "Cream" of Clapton's collection – as well as guitars donated by famous friends – was held on 24 June 2004. His Lowden acoustic guitar sold for US$41,825. The revenue garnered by this auction at Christie's was US$7,438,624.[97]In 2010 Eric Clapton announced that he would be auctioning off over 150 items at a New York auction in 2011. Proceeds will benefit his Crossroads Centre in Antigua. Items include Clapton's guitar from the Cream reunion tour in 2005, speaker cabinets used in the early 1970s from his days with Derek and the Dominoes, and some guitars from Jeff Beck, JJ Cale, and Joe Bonamassa.[109] In March 2011 Clapton raised more than US$2.15 million when he auctioned off key items, including a 1984 Gibson hollow body guitar, a Gianni Versace suit from his 1990 concert at the Royal Albert Hall, and a replica of the famous Fender Stratocaster known as "Blackie", which fetched more than $30,000. All proceeds from the auction were donated to Clapton's Crossroads drug and rehabilitation centre in Antigua. Woman tone: The "woman tone" is the informal term used by Clapton to refer to his distinctive mid- to late-1960s electric guitar sound, created using his Gibson SG solid body guitar (with Humbucker pick-ups) and a Marshall tube amplifier.[110] It is an overdriven sound that is articulate yet thick. It is characterised by being quite distorted (or even achieved with a fuzz) but muted, in contrast to the bright and twangy distortion that most guitarists were using at the time.Among the techniques used to replicate Clapton's sound is a technique by which the amplifier's volume is turned up to full, while the guitar's tone knob is turned down to zero or one.[111]Perhaps the best example of the "woman tone" is Clapton's famous riff and solo from Cream's 1967 hit "Sunshine of Your Love". Clapton has explained that he obtained the tone with his Gibson's tone control rolled all the way down, switching the neck pick-up (closest to the fretboard) and the volume all the way up, with his distortion turned all the way up. The treble, mids and bass controls on the amplifier were also maxed out. Some versions of the "woman tone" may also have involved strategic positioning of Clapton's wah-wah pedal. Other media appearances: Clapton frequently appears as a guest on the albums of other musicians. For example, he is credited on Dire Straits's Brothers in Arms album, as he lent Mark Knopfler one of his guitars. He played lead guitar and synthesiser on The Pros and Cons of Hitch Hiking, Roger Waters' debut solo album. Other media appearances include the Toots & the Maytals album True Love, where he played guitar on the track "Pressure Drop". He played on Paul Brady's 1985 album Back to the Centre on the track "Deep in your Heart". He can also be heard at the beginning of Frank Zappa's album, We're Only in It for the Money, repeating the phrase, "Are you hung up?" over and over again. In 1985, Clapton appeared on the charity concert Live Aid in Philadelphia with Phil Collins, Tim Renwick, Chris Stainton, Jamie Oldaker, Marcy Levy, Shaun Murphy, and Donald 'Duck' Dunn. In 1988 he played with Dire Straits and Elton John at the Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute at Wembley Stadium and the Prince's Trust rock gala at the Royal Albert Hall. On 30 June 1990, Dire Straits, Clapton and Elton John made a guest appearance in the Nordoff-Robbins charity show held at Knebworth.[112] In 1991 Clapton was featured on Richie Sambora's album, Stranger in This Town, in a song dedicated to him, called "Mr. Bluesman". He contributed guitar and vocals to "Runaway Train", a duet with Elton John on the latter's The One album the following year.On 12 September 1996 Clapton played a party for Armani at New York City's Lexington Armory with Greg Phillinganes, Nathan East and Steve Gadd. Sheryl Crow appeared on one number, performing "Tearing Us Apart", a track from August, which was first performed by Tina Turner during the Prince's Trust All-Star Rock show in 1986. It was Clapton's sole US appearance that year, following the open-air concert held at Hyde Park.[113] The concert was taped and the footage was released both on VHS video cassette and later, on DVD.[113]Clapton was featured in the movie version of Tommy, the first full length rock opera, written by The Who. The movie version gave Clapton a cameo appearance as The Preacher, performing Sonny Boy Williamson's song, "Eyesight to the Blind". He appeared in Blues Brothers 2000 as one of the Louisiana Gator Boys. In addition to being in the band, he had a small speaking role. Clapton has appeared in an advertisement for the Mercedes-Benz G-Wagen. In March 2007 Clapton appeared in an advertisement[114] for RealNetwork's Rhapsody online music service. In 2010 Clapton started appearing as a spokesman for T-Mobile, advertising their MyTouch Fender cell phone.Eric Clapton was compared to God's image in the episode "Holy Crap!" of season two of That '70s Show when characters Eric Forman and Steven Hyde are asked by their minister to draw a picture of God.Eric Clapton appeared on Top Gear in 2013, during Series 19 Episode 4 and was involved in testing the new Kia Cee'd. He was called upon to test the Cee'd's auxiliary input, which he tested by plugging in one of his guitars and playing several bars of his most famous hits. He was announced by Jeremy Clarkson to simply be a "local guitarist." Personal life: Relationships and children:Clapton and Pattie Boyd married in 1979. They had no children. In 1984 while recording Behind The Sun, Clapton began a relationship with Yvonne Kelly, the manager of the recording studio in Montserrat. Both married but not to each other, the two had a daughter in January 1985. She was named Ruth Kelly Clapton, but her existence was kept from the public until the media realised she was his child in 1991.[115][116]Clapton and Boyd tried unsuccessfully to have children, even trying in vitro fertilisation in 1984, but were faced instead with miscarriages.[117] They divorced in 1988 following his affair with Italian model Lory Del Santo, who gave birth to their son, Conor, on 21 August 1986. Conor died in 1991, at the age of four and a half, when he fell out of an open bedroom window on the 53rd floor of a Manhattan apartment building.[118] The death of his son was the inspiration for Clapton's song, "Tears in Heaven".Clapton married Melia McEnery in a low-key church ceremony in January 2001. Daughter Julie Rose was born in June 2001. Daughter Ella May was born in London in 2003. Daughter Sophie Belle was born in 2005.[119] Grandson, Isaac Eric Owen Bartlett born June 2013, by Eric's oldest daughter Ruth and her husband Dean Bartlett.[120] Political views:Clapton is a supporter of the Countryside Alliance, has played in concerts to raise funds for the organisation and publicly opposed the Labour Party’s ban on fox hunting with the 2004 Hunting Act. A spokesperson for Clapton said, "Eric supports the Countryside Alliance. He doesn't hunt himself, but does enjoy rural pursuits such as fishing and shooting. He supports the Alliance's pursuit to scrap the ban on the basis that he doesn't agree with the state's interference with people's private pursuits."[121]In 2008, he donated a song to Aid Still Required's CD to assist with the restoration of the devastation done to Southeast Asia from the 2004 tsunami. Controversy over remarks on immigration:On 5 August 1976 Clapton provoked an uproar and lingering controversy when he spoke out against increasing immigration during a concert in Birmingham. Visibly intoxicated, Clapton voiced his support of controversial political candidate Enoch Powell, and announced on stage that Britain was in danger of becoming a "black colony". Clapton was quoted as saying, "I think Enoch's right ... we should send them all back. Throw the wogs out! Keep Britain white!"[122] The latter phrase was at the time a British National Front slogan.[123] Clapton continued:"I used to be into dope, now I’m into racism. It’s much heavier, man. F**king wogs, man. F**king Saudis taking over London. Bastard wogs. Britain is becoming overcrowded and Enoch will stop it and send them all back. The black wogs and coons and Arabs and f**king Jamaicans and f**king [indecipherable] don’t belong here, we don’t want them here. This is England, this is a white country, we don’t want any black wogs and coons living here. We need to make clear to them they are not welcome. England is for white people, man. We are a white country. I don’t want f**king wogs living next to me with their standards. This is Great Britain, a white country, what is happening to us, for f**k's sake? We need to vote for Enoch Powell, he’s a great man, speaking truth. Vote for Enoch, he’s our man, he’s on our side, he’ll look after us. I want all of you here to vote for Enoch, support him, he’s on our side. Enoch for Prime Minister! Throw the wogs out! Keep Britain white!"[124]This incident, along with some controversial remarks made around the same time by David Bowie, as well as uses of Nazi-related imagery by Sid Vicious and Siouxsie Sioux, were the main catalysts for the creation of Rock Against Racism, which occurred on 30 April 1978.[125]In response to the comments, rock photographer Red Saunders and others published an open letter in NME, Melody Maker, Sounds, and the Socialist Worker. It read "Come on Eric... Own up. Half your music is black. You're rock music's biggest colonist". It concluded, "P.S. Who shot the Sheriff, Eric? It sure as hell wasn't you!"[125]In an interview from October 1976 with Sounds magazine, Clapton remarked, "I thought it was quite funny actually. I don't know much about politics. I don't even know if it would be good or bad for him to get in. I don't even know who the Prime Minister is now. I just don't know what came over me that night. It must have been something that happened in the day but it came out in this garbled thing... I thought the whole thing was like Monty Python. There's this rock group playing on-stage and the singer starts talking about politics. It's so stupid. Those people who paid their money sittin' listening to this madman dribbling on and the band meanwhile getting fidgety thinking 'oh dear'."[126]In a 2004 interview with Uncut, Clapton referred to Powell as "outrageously brave", and stated that his "feeling about this has not changed", because the UK is still "... inviting people in as cheap labour and then putting them in ghettos." In 2004 Clapton told an interviewer for Scotland on Sunday, "There's no way I could be a racist. It would make no sense".[127] In his 2007 autobiography, Clapton called himself "deliberately oblivious to it all" and wrote, "I had never really understood or been directly affected by racial conflict ... when I listened to music, I was disinterested in where the players came from or what colour their skin was. Interesting, then, that 10 years later, I would be labelled a racist ... Since then, I have learnt to keep my opinions to myself. Of course, it might also have had something to do with the fact that Pattie had just been leered at by a member of the Saudi royal family."[128] In a December 2007 interview with Melvyn Bragg on The South Bank Show, Clapton reiterated his support for Enoch Powell and again denied that Powell's views were "racist".[129] Wealth and assets:In 2009 Surrey Life Magazine ranked Eric Clapton as number 17 in their list of richest Surrey residents, estimating Clapton's fortune at £120 million in assets. This was a compilation of property and income which include a £9 million yacht, "Va Bene" (previously owned by Bernie Ecclestone), his back music catalogue, his touring income, and his Marshbrook holding company, which had earned him £110 million since 1989.[130] In 2003, he purchased a 50 percent share of gentleman's outfitters Cordings Piccadilly.[131] At the time, owner Noll Uloth was trying to save the shop from closure and thought 'I will go and talk to my best client". He is reported to have contacted Clapton and within five minutes he had a reply saying 'I can't let this happen."[131] Charitable work:In 1993, Clapton was appointed a director of Clouds House, a treatment centre for drug and alcohol dependence, and served on their board until 1997.[132] Clapton also served on the board of directors for The Chemical Dependency Centre from 1994 until 1999.[133] Both charities subsequently merged to become Action on Addiction in 2007.In 1998, he established the Crossroads Center in Antigua to help others overcome their addictions to drugs and alcohol and is active in its management oversight and fundraising to the present day.[134][135] Clapton has organized the Crossroads Guitar Festival in 2004, 2007, 2010 and 2013 to raise funds for this center.[136]Awards and honours[edit] Year Award / Recognition1983 Presented the Silver Clef Award from Princess Michael of Kent for outstanding contribution to British music.[137]1985 Presented with BAFTA for Best Original Television Music for Score of Edge of Darkness with Michael Kamen.[138]1993 "Tears in Heaven" won three Grammy awards for Song of the Year, Record of the Year, and Male Pop Vocal Performance. Clapton also won Album of the Year and Best Rock Vocal Performance for Unplugged and Best Rock Song for "Layla".[139]1994 Awarded the OBE for services to music.[140]2000 Inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame for the third time, this time as a solo artist. He was earlier inducted as a member of the bands Cream and The Yardbirds.[141]2004 Promoted to CBE, receiving the award from the Princess Royal at Buckingham Palace as part of the New Year's Honours list.[142][143]2006 Awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award as a member of Cream.[144]Football[edit] In 1982 he performed a concert before West Bromwich Albion player John Wile's testimonial game at The Hawthorns, and it is often reported by various sources that Clapton is an Albion supporter. Credence for this notion can be taken from the cover pictures to the "Backless" solo album, where he is seen on the front cover to be wearing a football scarf; the rear cover photograph reveals the slogan "ALBION" on the scarf. It has been reported that the club rejected his offer to invest cash in the club around this time, and that he has since expressed more of an interest in Chelsea.[145]Clapton's music in film and TV[edit] Clapton's music has appeared in dozens of movies and television shows as far back as 1973's Mean Streets which featured the song "I Looked Away". Other appearances in media include in the Miami Vice series ("Wonderful Tonight", "Knock on Wood", "She's Waiting", and "Layla"), Back to the Future ("Heaven Is One Step Away"), Lethal Weapon 2 ("Knockin' On Heaven's Door"), Goodfellas ("Layla" and "Sunshine of Your Love"),[146] the Friends episode "The One with the Proposal, Part 2" ("Wonderful Tonight"), and Men in Black III ("Strange Brew"). Also, Opel and Vauxhall used the guitar riff from "Layla" in their advertising campaigns throughout 1987–95. In addition to his music appearing in media, Clapton has contributed to several movies by writing or co-writing the musical scores or contributing original songs. These movies include Lethal Weapon (co-written with Michael Kamen), Communion, Rush, Phenomenon ("Change the World"), and Lethal Weapon 3 (co-wrote and co-performed "It's Probably Me" with Sting and "Runaway Train" with Elton John).Discography[edit] Main article: Eric Clapton discography:Solo studio albums:Eric Clapton (1970)461 Ocean Boulevard (1974)There's One in Every Crowd (1975)No Reason to Cry (1976)Slowhand (1977)Backless (1978)Another Ticket (1981)Money and Cigarettes (1983)Behind the Sun (1985)August (1986)Journeyman (1989)Rush (1992)From the Cradle (1994)Pilgrim (1998)Riding with the King (with B.B. King) (2000)Reptile (2001)Me and Mr. Johnson (2004)Sessions for Robert J (2004)Back Home (2005)The Road to Escondido (with JJ Cale) (2006)Clapton (2010)Old Sock (2013)[147] &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& Condition: Like New, Condition: Jump Back: The Best of the Rolling Stones 1971-1993 [Remaster] by The Rolling Stones (CD, 1993, Virgin) & Time Pieces: Best of Eric Clapton by Eric Clapton (CD, 1982, Polydor). Condition of both CDs & Inserts: Like New & 100% Computer Tested playable. Condition of CD Cases: New (see actual front and back photos)., Duration: Album, Special Attributes: 2 Separate CDs, Country/Region of Manufacture: United States, The Rolling Stones: Eric Clapton, Start Me Up: Brown Sugar, Angie: It's Only Rock 'N Roll (But I Like It), Tumbling Dice: Rock and a Hard Place, Miss You: Beast of Burden, Wild Horses: Emotional Rescue, I Shot the Sheriff: Layla, Wonderful Tonight: After Midnight, Cocaine: Lay Down Sally, Let It Grow: Willie and the Hand Jive, Swing Low Sweet Chariot: Knockin' on Heaven's Door, Genre: Rock, Style: Hard Rock, Artist: The Rolling Stones, Release Year: 2004

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